Contract Diff Checker

Contract Name:
Ethernauts

Contract Source Code:

//SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.9;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Address.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Strings.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/extensions/ERC721Enumerable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol";

contract Ethernauts is ERC721Enumerable, Ownable {
    using Address for address payable;
    using Strings for uint256;

    error MaxGiftableTokensTooLarge();
    error MaxTokensTooLarge();
    error CannotCallOnCurrentState();
    error NotEnoughETH();
    error NoTokensAvailable();
    error CouponAlreadyRedeemed();
    error InvalidCoupon();
    error NoGiftTokensAvailable();
    error BaseUriIsFrozen();
    error DoesNotChangeSaleState();
    error InvalidRecoveryAddress();
    error InsufficientERC20TokenBalance();
    error NotAuthorized();

    event SaleStateChanged(SaleState state);
    event BaseTokenURIChanged(string baseTokenURI);
    event EarlyMintPriceChanged(uint256 earlyMintPrice);
    event MintPriceChanged(uint256 mintPrice);
    event CouponSignerChanged(address couponSigner);
    event ETHWithdrawn(address beneficiary);
    event PermanentURISet(bool value);
    event UrlChangerChanged(address urlChanger);

    // Can be set only once on deploy
    uint256 public immutable maxTokens;
    uint256 public immutable maxGiftableTokens;
    uint256 public immutable batchSize;
    bytes32 public immutable provenanceHash;

    // Can be changed by owner
    string public baseTokenURI;
    uint256 public mintPrice;
    uint256 public earlyMintPrice;
    address public couponSigner;
    address public urlChanger;

    // Internal usage
    uint256 private _tokensGifted;
    mapping(address => bool) private _redeemedCoupons; // user address => if its single coupon has been redeemed
    uint256[] private _randomNumbers;
    bool public permanentURI;

    // Three different sale stages:
    enum SaleState {
        Paused, // No one can mint, except the owner via gifting (default)
        Early, // Only community can mint, at a discount using signed messages
        Open // Anyone can mint
    }

    SaleState public currentSaleState;

    constructor(
        uint256 definitiveMaxTokens,
        uint256 definitiveMaxGiftableTokens,
        uint256 definitiveBatchSize,
        bytes32 definitiveProvenanceHash,
        uint256 initialMintPrice,
        uint256 initialEarlyMintPrice,
        address initialCouponSigner,
        address initialUrlChanger
    ) ERC721("Ethernauts", "NAUTS") {
        if (definitiveMaxTokens > 10000) {
            revert MaxTokensTooLarge();
        }

        if (definitiveMaxGiftableTokens > 100) {
            revert MaxGiftableTokensTooLarge();
        }

        maxTokens = definitiveMaxTokens;
        maxGiftableTokens = definitiveMaxGiftableTokens;
        batchSize = definitiveBatchSize;
        provenanceHash = definitiveProvenanceHash;

        mintPrice = initialMintPrice;
        earlyMintPrice = initialEarlyMintPrice;
        couponSigner = initialCouponSigner;
        urlChanger = initialUrlChanger;

        currentSaleState = SaleState.Paused;
    }

    // ----------
    // Modifiers
    // ----------

    modifier onlyOnState(SaleState definedSaleState) {
        if (currentSaleState != definedSaleState) {
            revert CannotCallOnCurrentState();
        }

        _;
    }

    // --------------------
    // Public external ABI
    // --------------------

    /// @notice Mints a single token if at least mintPrice is sent and there are tokens available to mint.
    function mint() external payable onlyOnState(SaleState.Open) {
        if (msg.value < mintPrice) {
            revert NotEnoughETH();
        }

        if (availableToMint() == 0) {
            revert NoTokensAvailable();
        }

        _mintNext(msg.sender);
    }

    /// @notice Allows the sender to mint while in early sale state.
    /// @param signedCoupon Coupon given by couponSigner giving the sender early mint access.
    function mintEarly(bytes memory signedCoupon) external payable onlyOnState(SaleState.Early) {
        if (msg.value < earlyMintPrice) {
            revert NotEnoughETH();
        }

        if (availableToMint() == 0) {
            revert NoTokensAvailable();
        }

        if (userRedeemedCoupon(msg.sender)) {
            revert CouponAlreadyRedeemed();
        }

        if (!isCouponSignedForUser(msg.sender, signedCoupon)) {
            revert InvalidCoupon();
        }

        _redeemedCoupons[msg.sender] = true;

        _mintNext(msg.sender);
    }

    /// @notice The number of tokens gifted.
    /// @return The number of tokens gifted.
    function tokensGifted() external view returns (uint256) {
        return _tokensGifted;
    }

    /// @notice Total number of tokens available.
    /// @return The current number of available tokens (max - total current supply).
    function availableSupply() public view returns (uint256) {
        return maxTokens - totalSupply();
    }

    /// @notice Total number of tokens available for minting.
    /// @return The current number of mintable tokens (available supply - gifted supply).
    function availableToMint() public view returns (uint256) {
        return availableSupply() - availableToGift();
    }

    /// @notice Remaining giftable tokens.
    /// @return The amount of giftable tokens remaining (total giftable - already gifted).
    function availableToGift() public view returns (uint256) {
        return maxGiftableTokens - _tokensGifted;
    }

    /// @notice Checks if a token with tokenId exists.
    /// @param tokenId The Id being checked.
    /// @return true if token exists
    function exists(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (bool) {
        return _exists(tokenId);
    }

    /// @notice Checks if the supplied coupon is for the given user.
    /// @param user Address of user.
    /// @param coupon Coupon by couponSigner of the user's address.
    /// @return Returns true if the couponSigner signed for supplied user.
    function isCouponSignedForUser(address user, bytes memory coupon) public view returns (bool) {
        bytes32 messageHash = keccak256(abi.encode(user));
        bytes32 prefixedHash = ECDSA.toEthSignedMessageHash(messageHash);

        address retrievedSigner = ECDSA.recover(prefixedHash, coupon);

        return couponSigner == retrievedSigner;
    }

    /// @notice Checks to see if the user has redeemed a coupon.
    /// @param user Address of the user.
    /// @return True is the user has redeemed a coupon.
    function userRedeemedCoupon(address user) public view returns (bool) {
        return _redeemedCoupons[user];
    }

    /// @notice Returns the uri for a given token.
    /// @param tokenId Id of token
    /// @return URI of `tokenId` token
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view override returns (string memory) {
        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();

        (uint256 assetId, bool assetAvailable) = getAssetIdForTokenId(tokenId);
        if (!assetAvailable) {
            return string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, "travelling_to_destination"));
        }

        return string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, assetId.toString()));
    }

    function getAssetIdForTokenId(uint256 tokenId) public view returns (uint256 assetId, bool assetAvailable) {
        uint256 batchNumber = getBatchForToken(tokenId);
        if (batchNumber >= _randomNumbers.length) {
            return (assetId = 0, assetAvailable = false);
        }

        uint256 randomNumber = _randomNumbers[batchNumber];
        uint256 offset = randomNumber % batchSize;
        uint256 maxTokenIdInBatch = getMaxTokenIdInBatch(batchNumber);

        assetId = tokenId + offset;
        if (assetId > maxTokenIdInBatch) {
            assetId -= batchSize;
        }

        return (assetId, assetAvailable = true);
    }

    function getMaxTokenIdInBatch(uint256 batchNumber) public view returns (uint256) {
        return batchSize * (batchNumber + 1) - 1;
    }

    function getBatchForToken(uint256 tokenId) public view returns (uint256) {
        return tokenId / batchSize;
    }

    /// @notice Fetch the random number for `batchNumber`
    /// @param batchNumber for the batch.
    /// @return Random number for batchNumber
    function getRandomNumberForBatch(uint256 batchNumber) public view returns (uint256) {
        return _randomNumbers[batchNumber];
    }

    /// @notice Get the number of random numbers
    /// @return Number of random numbers in `_randomNumbers`
    function getRandomNumberCount() public view returns (uint256) {
        return _randomNumbers.length;
    }

    /// @notice Checks if the ethernaut reached its destination.
    /// @param tokenId Id for the token.
    /// @return Returns true is the ethernaut arrived
    function isTokenRevealed(uint256 tokenId) public view returns (bool) {
        uint256 batchNumber = getBatchForToken(tokenId);
        if (batchNumber >= _randomNumbers.length) {
            return false;
        }

        return true;
    }

    // -----------------------
    // Protected external ABI
    // -----------------------

    /// @notice Gifts a token to the `to` address.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param to The address the token is being gifted to.
    function gift(address to) external onlyOwner {
        if (_tokensGifted >= maxGiftableTokens) {
            revert NoGiftTokensAvailable();
        }

        _tokensGifted += 1;

        _mintNext(to);
    }

    /// @notice Sets the new mint price for a token.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param newMintPrice The new price a token can be bought for.
    function setMintPrice(uint256 newMintPrice) external onlyOwner {
        mintPrice = newMintPrice;

        emit MintPriceChanged(newMintPrice);
    }

    /// @notice Sets the new early mint price for a token.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param newEarlyMintPrice The new early price a token can be bought for.
    function setEarlyMintPrice(uint256 newEarlyMintPrice) external onlyOwner {
        earlyMintPrice = newEarlyMintPrice;

        emit EarlyMintPriceChanged(newEarlyMintPrice);
    }

    /// @notice Sets the base URI for all token URIs.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner. Can only be called if if the permanentURI hasn't been set yet.
    /// @param newBaseTokenURI The new base URI for tokens.
    function setBaseURI(string calldata newBaseTokenURI) external {
        if (msg.sender != owner() && msg.sender != urlChanger) {
            revert NotAuthorized();
        }

        if (permanentURI) {
            revert BaseUriIsFrozen();
        }

        baseTokenURI = newBaseTokenURI;

        emit BaseTokenURIChanged(newBaseTokenURI);
    }

    /// @notice Set the sale state for tokens.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param newSaleState The new sale state of the tokens.
    function setSaleState(SaleState newSaleState) external onlyOwner {
        if (newSaleState == currentSaleState) {
            revert DoesNotChangeSaleState();
        }

        currentSaleState = newSaleState;

        emit SaleStateChanged(newSaleState);
    }

    /// @notice Set the address that can issue coupons.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param newCouponSigner New address that can issue coupons.
    function setCouponSigner(address newCouponSigner) external onlyOwner {
        couponSigner = newCouponSigner;

        emit CouponSignerChanged(newCouponSigner);
    }

    /// @notice Freeze the URI so that it cant be updated anymore.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    function setPermanentURI() external onlyOwner {
        permanentURI = true;

        emit PermanentURISet(true);
    }

    /// @notice Sets address of `urlChanger`
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param newUrlChanger New address that can change the URI
    function setUrlChanger(address newUrlChanger) external onlyOwner {
        urlChanger = newUrlChanger;

        emit UrlChangerChanged(newUrlChanger);
    }

    /// @notice Withdraws all eth currently held by the contract.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner. sendValue used to avoid 2300 gas issuance complications.
    /// @param beneficiary The address that funds will be withdrawn to.
    function withdraw(address payable beneficiary) external onlyOwner {
        beneficiary.sendValue(address(this).balance);

        emit ETHWithdrawn(beneficiary);
    }

    /// @notice Withdraw `value` tokens held by this contract.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    /// @param token Contract address of erc20 token.
    /// @param to Address tokens are being sent to.
    /// @param value The amount of tokens being withdrawn.
    function recoverTokens(
        address token,
        address to,
        uint256 value
    ) external onlyOwner {
        if (token == to) {
            revert InvalidRecoveryAddress();
        }

        if (IERC20(token).balanceOf(address(this)) < value) {
            revert InsufficientERC20TokenBalance();
        }

        IERC20(token).transfer(to, value);
    }

    /// @notice Manually generate a random number for a token batch in the case that
    /// minting is delayed or stagnates. Calling this should be avoided if possible
    /// because it increases trust on the owner.
    /// @dev This can only be called by the contract owner.
    function generateRandomNumber() external onlyOwner {
        _generateRandomNumber();
    }

    // -------------------
    // Private functions
    // -------------------

    function _baseURI() internal view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return baseTokenURI;
    }

    function _mintNext(address to) private {
        uint256 tokenId = totalSupply();

        _generateRandomNumberIfNeeded(tokenId);

        _mint(to, tokenId);
    }

    function _generateRandomNumberIfNeeded(uint256 lastTokenId) private {
        uint256 currentBatchNumber = getBatchForToken(lastTokenId);
        if (_randomNumbers.length > currentBatchNumber) {
            return;
        }

        uint256 maxTokenIdInBatch = getMaxTokenIdInBatch(currentBatchNumber);
        if (maxTokenIdInBatch > lastTokenId) {
            return;
        }

        _generateRandomNumber();
    }

    function _generateRandomNumber() private {
        uint256 randomNumber = uint256(
            keccak256(abi.encodePacked(msg.sender, block.difficulty, block.timestamp, _randomNumbers.length))
        );

        _randomNumbers.push(randomNumber);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/Address.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     *
     * Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
     * types of addresses:
     *
     *  - an externally-owned account
     *  - a contract in construction
     *  - an address where a contract will be created
     *  - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
     * ====
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies on extcodesize, which returns 0 for contracts in
        // construction, since the code is only stored at the end of the
        // constructor execution.

        uint256 size;
        assembly {
            size := extcodesize(account)
        }
        return size > 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
     * `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
     *
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
     * of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
     * imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
     * `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
     *
     * https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
     *
     * IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
     * taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
     * {ReentrancyGuard} or the
     * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
     */
    function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");

        (bool success, ) = recipient.call{value: amount}("");
        require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
     * plain `call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
     * function instead.
     *
     * If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
     * function (like regular Solidity function calls).
     *
     * Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
     * use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `target` must be a contract.
     * - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCall(target, data, "Address: low-level call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
     * `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
     * - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
     * with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
        require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{value: value}(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionStaticCall(target, data, "Address: low-level static call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: static call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.staticcall(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionDelegateCall(target, data, "Address: low-level delegate call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: delegate call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.delegatecall(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Tool to verifies that a low level call was successful, and revert if it wasn't, either by bubbling the
     * revert reason using the provided one.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function verifyCallResult(
        bool success,
        bytes memory returndata,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        if (success) {
            return returndata;
        } else {
            // Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
            if (returndata.length > 0) {
                // The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly

                assembly {
                    let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
                    revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
                }
            } else {
                revert(errorMessage);
            }
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant _HEX_SYMBOLS = "0123456789abcdef";

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        // Inspired by OraclizeAPI's implementation - MIT licence
        // https://github.com/oraclize/ethereum-api/blob/b42146b063c7d6ee1358846c198246239e9360e8/oraclizeAPI_0.4.25.sol

        if (value == 0) {
            return "0";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 digits;
        while (temp != 0) {
            digits++;
            temp /= 10;
        }
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(digits);
        while (value != 0) {
            digits -= 1;
            buffer[digits] = bytes1(uint8(48 + uint256(value % 10)));
            value /= 10;
        }
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        if (value == 0) {
            return "0x00";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 length = 0;
        while (temp != 0) {
            length++;
            temp >>= 8;
        }
        return toHexString(value, length);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = _HEX_SYMBOLS[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (access/Ownable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
 * can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
abstract contract Ownable is Context {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor() {
        _transferOwnership(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(address(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Internal function without access restriction.
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
        address oldOwner = _owner;
        _owner = newOwner;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC20/IERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address sender,
        address recipient,
        uint256 amount
    ) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/extensions/ERC721Enumerable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../ERC721.sol";
import "./IERC721Enumerable.sol";

/**
 * @dev This implements an optional extension of {ERC721} defined in the EIP that adds
 * enumerability of all the token ids in the contract as well as all token ids owned by each
 * account.
 */
abstract contract ERC721Enumerable is ERC721, IERC721Enumerable {
    // Mapping from owner to list of owned token IDs
    mapping(address => mapping(uint256 => uint256)) private _ownedTokens;

    // Mapping from token ID to index of the owner tokens list
    mapping(uint256 => uint256) private _ownedTokensIndex;

    // Array with all token ids, used for enumeration
    uint256[] private _allTokens;

    // Mapping from token id to position in the allTokens array
    mapping(uint256 => uint256) private _allTokensIndex;

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(IERC165, ERC721) returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC721Enumerable).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Enumerable-tokenOfOwnerByIndex}.
     */
    function tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address owner, uint256 index) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(index < ERC721.balanceOf(owner), "ERC721Enumerable: owner index out of bounds");
        return _ownedTokens[owner][index];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Enumerable-totalSupply}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _allTokens.length;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Enumerable-tokenByIndex}.
     */
    function tokenByIndex(uint256 index) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(index < ERC721Enumerable.totalSupply(), "ERC721Enumerable: global index out of bounds");
        return _allTokens[index];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting
     * and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be burned.
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual override {
        super._beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId);

        if (from == address(0)) {
            _addTokenToAllTokensEnumeration(tokenId);
        } else if (from != to) {
            _removeTokenFromOwnerEnumeration(from, tokenId);
        }
        if (to == address(0)) {
            _removeTokenFromAllTokensEnumeration(tokenId);
        } else if (to != from) {
            _addTokenToOwnerEnumeration(to, tokenId);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Private function to add a token to this extension's ownership-tracking data structures.
     * @param to address representing the new owner of the given token ID
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be added to the tokens list of the given address
     */
    function _addTokenToOwnerEnumeration(address to, uint256 tokenId) private {
        uint256 length = ERC721.balanceOf(to);
        _ownedTokens[to][length] = tokenId;
        _ownedTokensIndex[tokenId] = length;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Private function to add a token to this extension's token tracking data structures.
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be added to the tokens list
     */
    function _addTokenToAllTokensEnumeration(uint256 tokenId) private {
        _allTokensIndex[tokenId] = _allTokens.length;
        _allTokens.push(tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Private function to remove a token from this extension's ownership-tracking data structures. Note that
     * while the token is not assigned a new owner, the `_ownedTokensIndex` mapping is _not_ updated: this allows for
     * gas optimizations e.g. when performing a transfer operation (avoiding double writes).
     * This has O(1) time complexity, but alters the order of the _ownedTokens array.
     * @param from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be removed from the tokens list of the given address
     */
    function _removeTokenFromOwnerEnumeration(address from, uint256 tokenId) private {
        // To prevent a gap in from's tokens array, we store the last token in the index of the token to delete, and
        // then delete the last slot (swap and pop).

        uint256 lastTokenIndex = ERC721.balanceOf(from) - 1;
        uint256 tokenIndex = _ownedTokensIndex[tokenId];

        // When the token to delete is the last token, the swap operation is unnecessary
        if (tokenIndex != lastTokenIndex) {
            uint256 lastTokenId = _ownedTokens[from][lastTokenIndex];

            _ownedTokens[from][tokenIndex] = lastTokenId; // Move the last token to the slot of the to-delete token
            _ownedTokensIndex[lastTokenId] = tokenIndex; // Update the moved token's index
        }

        // This also deletes the contents at the last position of the array
        delete _ownedTokensIndex[tokenId];
        delete _ownedTokens[from][lastTokenIndex];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Private function to remove a token from this extension's token tracking data structures.
     * This has O(1) time complexity, but alters the order of the _allTokens array.
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be removed from the tokens list
     */
    function _removeTokenFromAllTokensEnumeration(uint256 tokenId) private {
        // To prevent a gap in the tokens array, we store the last token in the index of the token to delete, and
        // then delete the last slot (swap and pop).

        uint256 lastTokenIndex = _allTokens.length - 1;
        uint256 tokenIndex = _allTokensIndex[tokenId];

        // When the token to delete is the last token, the swap operation is unnecessary. However, since this occurs so
        // rarely (when the last minted token is burnt) that we still do the swap here to avoid the gas cost of adding
        // an 'if' statement (like in _removeTokenFromOwnerEnumeration)
        uint256 lastTokenId = _allTokens[lastTokenIndex];

        _allTokens[tokenIndex] = lastTokenId; // Move the last token to the slot of the to-delete token
        _allTokensIndex[lastTokenId] = tokenIndex; // Update the moved token's index

        // This also deletes the contents at the last position of the array
        delete _allTokensIndex[tokenId];
        _allTokens.pop();
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../Strings.sol";

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSA {
    enum RecoverError {
        NoError,
        InvalidSignature,
        InvalidSignatureLength,
        InvalidSignatureS,
        InvalidSignatureV
    }

    function _throwError(RecoverError error) private pure {
        if (error == RecoverError.NoError) {
            return; // no error: do nothing
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignature) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature length");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 's' value");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 'v' value");
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature` or error string. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     *
     * Documentation for signature generation:
     * - with https://web3js.readthedocs.io/en/v1.3.4/web3-eth-accounts.html#sign[Web3.js]
     * - with https://docs.ethers.io/v5/api/signer/#Signer-signMessage[ethers]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // Check the signature length
        // - case 65: r,s,v signature (standard)
        // - case 64: r,vs signature (cf https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098) _Available since v4.1._
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 s;
            uint8 v;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        } else if (signature.length == 64) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 vs;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                vs := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        } else {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, signature);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `r` and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098[EIP-2098 short signatures]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        bytes32 s;
        uint8 v;
        assembly {
            s := and(vs, 0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff)
            v := add(shr(255, vs), 27)
        }
        return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `r and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.2._
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (301): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (302): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        if (uint256(s) > 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS);
        }
        if (v != 27 && v != 28) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV);
        }

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer == address(0)) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignature);
        }

        return (signer, RecoverError.NoError);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from a `hash`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 hash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        // 32 is the length in bytes of hash,
        // enforced by the type signature above
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", hash));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from `s`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes memory s) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n", Strings.toString(s.length), s));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Typed Data, created from a
     * `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`. This produces hash corresponding
     * to the one signed with the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19\x01", domainSeparator, structHash));
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/ERC721.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC721.sol";
import "./IERC721Receiver.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC721Metadata.sol";
import "../../utils/Address.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";
import "../../utils/Strings.sol";
import "../../utils/introspection/ERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721[ERC721] Non-Fungible Token Standard, including
 * the Metadata extension, but not including the Enumerable extension, which is available separately as
 * {ERC721Enumerable}.
 */
contract ERC721 is Context, ERC165, IERC721, IERC721Metadata {
    using Address for address;
    using Strings for uint256;

    // Token name
    string private _name;

    // Token symbol
    string private _symbol;

    // Mapping from token ID to owner address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _owners;

    // Mapping owner address to token count
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;

    // Mapping from token ID to approved address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _tokenApprovals;

    // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract by setting a `name` and a `symbol` to the token collection.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ERC165, IERC165) returns (bool) {
        return
            interfaceId == type(IERC721).interfaceId ||
            interfaceId == type(IERC721Metadata).interfaceId ||
            super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: balance query for the zero address");
        return _balances[owner];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-ownerOf}.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        address owner = _owners[tokenId];
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: owner query for nonexistent token");
        return owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-name}.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-symbol}.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-tokenURI}.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721Metadata: URI query for nonexistent token");

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length > 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, tokenId.toString())) : "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev Base URI for computing {tokenURI}. If set, the resulting URI for each
     * token will be the concatenation of the `baseURI` and the `tokenId`. Empty
     * by default, can be overriden in child contracts.
     */
    function _baseURI() internal view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-approve}.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public virtual override {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        require(to != owner, "ERC721: approval to current owner");

        require(
            _msgSender() == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSender()),
            "ERC721: approve caller is not owner nor approved for all"
        );

        _approve(to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-getApproved}.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: approved query for nonexistent token");

        return _tokenApprovals[tokenId];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        _setApprovalForAll(_msgSender(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-isApprovedForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return _operatorApprovals[owner][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-transferFrom}.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        //solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: transfer caller is not owner nor approved");

        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: transfer caller is not owner nor approved");
        _safeTransfer(from, to, tokenId, _data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * `_data` is additional data, it has no specified format and it is sent in call to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {safeTransferFrom}, and can be used to e.g.
     * implement alternative mechanisms to perform token transfer, such as signature-based.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
        require(_checkOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, _data), "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `tokenId` exists.
     *
     * Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Tokens start existing when they are minted (`_mint`),
     * and stop existing when they are burned (`_burn`).
     */
    function _exists(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _owners[tokenId] != address(0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `spender` is allowed to manage `tokenId`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function _isApprovedOrOwner(address spender, uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: operator query for nonexistent token");
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        return (spender == owner || getApproved(tokenId) == spender || isApprovedForAll(owner, spender));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-ERC721-_safeMint-address-uint256-}[`_safeMint`], with an additional `data` parameter which is
     * forwarded in {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} to contract recipients.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, tokenId);
        require(
            _checkOnERC721Received(address(0), to, tokenId, _data),
            "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer"
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {_safeMint} whenever possible
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: mint to the zero address");
        require(!_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: token already minted");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId);

        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(address(0), to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);

        _beforeTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);

        // Clear approvals
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[owner] -= 1;
        delete _owners[tokenId];

        emit Transfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *  As opposed to {transferFrom}, this imposes no restrictions on msg.sender.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {
        require(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId) == from, "ERC721: transfer of token that is not own");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[from] -= 1;
        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `to` to operate on `tokenId`
     *
     * Emits a {Approval} event.
     */
    function _approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _tokenApprovals[tokenId] = to;
        emit Approval(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId), to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `operator` to operate on all of `owner` tokens
     *
     * Emits a {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function _setApprovalForAll(
        address owner,
        address operator,
        bool approved
    ) internal virtual {
        require(owner != operator, "ERC721: approve to caller");
        _operatorApprovals[owner][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(owner, operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Internal function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target address.
     * The call is not executed if the target address is not a contract.
     *
     * @param from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
     * @param to target address that will receive the tokens
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
     * @param _data bytes optional data to send along with the call
     * @return bool whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value
     */
    function _checkOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received(_msgSender(), from, tokenId, _data) returns (bytes4 retval) {
                return retval == IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received.selector;
            } catch (bytes memory reason) {
                if (reason.length == 0) {
                    revert("ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
                } else {
                    assembly {
                        revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting
     * and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/extensions/IERC721Enumerable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC721.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional enumeration extension
 * @dev See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721
 */
interface IERC721Enumerable is IERC721 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the total amount of tokens stored by the contract.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns a token ID owned by `owner` at a given `index` of its token list.
     * Use along with {balanceOf} to enumerate all of ``owner``'s tokens.
     */
    function tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address owner, uint256 index) external view returns (uint256 tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Returns a token ID at a given `index` of all the tokens stored by the contract.
     * Use along with {totalSupply} to enumerate all tokens.
     */
    function tokenByIndex(uint256 index) external view returns (uint256);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/IERC721.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../../utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Required interface of an ERC721 compliant contract.
 */
interface IERC721 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `tokenId` token is transferred from `from` to `to`.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables `approved` to manage the `tokenId` token.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed approved, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables or disables (`approved`) `operator` to manage all of its assets.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed owner, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in ``owner``'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be have been allowed to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {safeTransferFrom} whenever possible.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom} for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/IERC721Receiver.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @title ERC721 token receiver interface
 * @dev Interface for any contract that wants to support safeTransfers
 * from ERC721 asset contracts.
 */
interface IERC721Receiver {
    /**
     * @dev Whenever an {IERC721} `tokenId` token is transferred to this contract via {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}
     * by `operator` from `from`, this function is called.
     *
     * It must return its Solidity selector to confirm the token transfer.
     * If any other value is returned or the interface is not implemented by the recipient, the transfer will be reverted.
     *
     * The selector can be obtained in Solidity with `IERC721.onERC721Received.selector`.
     */
    function onERC721Received(
        address operator,
        address from,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external returns (bytes4);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (token/ERC721/extensions/IERC721Metadata.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC721.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional metadata extension
 * @dev See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721
 */
interface IERC721Metadata is IERC721 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (string memory);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/introspection/ERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165).interfaceId;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.0 (utils/introspection/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

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