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Contract Name:
OmnichainAdventures

Contract Source Code:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

import "./ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig.sol";

interface ILayerZeroEndpoint is ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig {
    // @notice send a LayerZero message to the specified address at a LayerZero endpoint.
    // @param _dstChainId - the destination chain identifier
    // @param _destination - the address on destination chain (in bytes). address length/format may vary by chains
    // @param _payload - a custom bytes payload to send to the destination contract
    // @param _refundAddress - if the source transaction is cheaper than the amount of value passed, refund the additional amount to this address
    // @param _zroPaymentAddress - the address of the ZRO token holder who would pay for the transaction
    // @param _adapterParams - parameters for custom functionality. e.g. receive airdropped native gas from the relayer on destination
    function send(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes calldata _destination, bytes calldata _payload, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes calldata _adapterParams) external payable;

    // @notice used by the messaging library to publish verified payload
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source contract (as bytes) at the source chain
    // @param _dstAddress - the address on destination chain
    // @param _nonce - the unbound message ordering nonce
    // @param _gasLimit - the gas limit for external contract execution
    // @param _payload - verified payload to send to the destination contract
    function receivePayload(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, address _dstAddress, uint64 _nonce, uint _gasLimit, bytes calldata _payload) external;

    // @notice get the inboundNonce of a lzApp from a source chain which could be EVM or non-EVM chain
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function getInboundNonce(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress) external view returns (uint64);

    // @notice get the outboundNonce from this source chain which, consequently, is always an EVM
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function getOutboundNonce(uint16 _dstChainId, address _srcAddress) external view returns (uint64);

    // @notice gets a quote in source native gas, for the amount that send() requires to pay for message delivery
    // @param _dstChainId - the destination chain identifier
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    // @param _payload - the custom message to send over LayerZero
    // @param _payInZRO - if false, user app pays the protocol fee in native token
    // @param _adapterParam - parameters for the adapter service, e.g. send some dust native token to dstChain
    function estimateFees(uint16 _dstChainId, address _userApplication, bytes calldata _payload, bool _payInZRO, bytes calldata _adapterParam) external view returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee);

    // @notice get this Endpoint's immutable source identifier
    function getChainId() external view returns (uint16);

    // @notice the interface to retry failed message on this Endpoint destination
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    // @param _payload - the payload to be retried
    function retryPayload(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, bytes calldata _payload) external;

    // @notice query if any STORED payload (message blocking) at the endpoint.
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function hasStoredPayload(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress) external view returns (bool);

    // @notice query if the _libraryAddress is valid for sending msgs.
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    function getSendLibraryAddress(address _userApplication) external view returns (address);

    // @notice query if the _libraryAddress is valid for receiving msgs.
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    function getReceiveLibraryAddress(address _userApplication) external view returns (address);

    // @notice query if the non-reentrancy guard for send() is on
    // @return true if the guard is on. false otherwise
    function isSendingPayload() external view returns (bool);

    // @notice query if the non-reentrancy guard for receive() is on
    // @return true if the guard is on. false otherwise
    function isReceivingPayload() external view returns (bool);

    // @notice get the configuration of the LayerZero messaging library of the specified version
    // @param _version - messaging library version
    // @param _chainId - the chainId for the pending config change
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    // @param _configType - type of configuration. every messaging library has its own convention.
    function getConfig(uint16 _version, uint16 _chainId, address _userApplication, uint _configType) external view returns (bytes memory);

    // @notice get the send() LayerZero messaging library version
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    function getSendVersion(address _userApplication) external view returns (uint16);

    // @notice get the lzReceive() LayerZero messaging library version
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    function getReceiveVersion(address _userApplication) external view returns (uint16);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

interface ILayerZeroReceiver {
    // @notice LayerZero endpoint will invoke this function to deliver the message on the destination
    // @param _srcChainId - the source endpoint identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source sending contract address from the source chain
    // @param _nonce - the ordered message nonce
    // @param _payload - the signed payload is the UA bytes has encoded to be sent
    function lzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes calldata _payload) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

interface ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig {
    // @notice set the configuration of the LayerZero messaging library of the specified version
    // @param _version - messaging library version
    // @param _chainId - the chainId for the pending config change
    // @param _configType - type of configuration. every messaging library has its own convention.
    // @param _config - configuration in the bytes. can encode arbitrary content.
    function setConfig(uint16 _version, uint16 _chainId, uint _configType, bytes calldata _config) external;

    // @notice set the send() LayerZero messaging library version to _version
    // @param _version - new messaging library version
    function setSendVersion(uint16 _version) external;

    // @notice set the lzReceive() LayerZero messaging library version to _version
    // @param _version - new messaging library version
    function setReceiveVersion(uint16 _version) external;

    // @notice Only when the UA needs to resume the message flow in blocking mode and clear the stored payload
    // @param _srcChainId - the chainId of the source chain
    // @param _srcAddress - the contract address of the source contract at the source chain
    function forceResumeReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
import "../interfaces/ILayerZeroReceiver.sol";
import "../interfaces/ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig.sol";
import "../interfaces/ILayerZeroEndpoint.sol";
import "../util/BytesLib.sol";

/*
 * a generic LzReceiver implementation
 */
abstract contract LzApp is Ownable, ILayerZeroReceiver, ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig {
    using BytesLib for bytes;

    // ua can not send payload larger than this by default, but it can be changed by the ua owner
    uint constant public DEFAULT_PAYLOAD_SIZE_LIMIT = 10000;

    ILayerZeroEndpoint public immutable lzEndpoint;
    mapping(uint16 => bytes) public trustedRemoteLookup;
    mapping(uint16 => mapping(uint16 => uint)) public minDstGasLookup;
    mapping(uint16 => uint) public payloadSizeLimitLookup;
    address public precrime;

    event SetPrecrime(address precrime);
    event SetTrustedRemote(uint16 _remoteChainId, bytes _path);
    event SetTrustedRemoteAddress(uint16 _remoteChainId, bytes _remoteAddress);
    event SetMinDstGas(uint16 _dstChainId, uint16 _type, uint _minDstGas);

    constructor(address _endpoint) {
        lzEndpoint = ILayerZeroEndpoint(_endpoint);
    }

    function lzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes calldata _payload) public virtual override {
        // lzReceive must be called by the endpoint for security
        require(_msgSender() == address(lzEndpoint), "LzApp: invalid endpoint caller");

        bytes memory trustedRemote = trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId];
        // if will still block the message pathway from (srcChainId, srcAddress). should not receive message from untrusted remote.
        require(_srcAddress.length == trustedRemote.length && trustedRemote.length > 0 && keccak256(_srcAddress) == keccak256(trustedRemote), "LzApp: invalid source sending contract");

        _blockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
    }

    // abstract function - the default behaviour of LayerZero is blocking. See: NonblockingLzApp if you dont need to enforce ordered messaging
    function _blockingLzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes memory _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes memory _payload) internal virtual;

    function _lzSend(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _payload, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes memory _adapterParams, uint _nativeFee) internal virtual {
        bytes memory trustedRemote = trustedRemoteLookup[_dstChainId];
        require(trustedRemote.length != 0, "LzApp: destination chain is not a trusted source");
        _checkPayloadSize(_dstChainId, _payload.length);
        lzEndpoint.send{value: _nativeFee}(_dstChainId, trustedRemote, _payload, _refundAddress, _zroPaymentAddress, _adapterParams);
    }

    function _checkGasLimit(uint16 _dstChainId, uint16 _type, bytes memory _adapterParams, uint _extraGas) internal view virtual {
        uint providedGasLimit = _getGasLimit(_adapterParams);
        uint minGasLimit = minDstGasLookup[_dstChainId][_type] + _extraGas;
        require(minGasLimit > 0, "LzApp: minGasLimit not set");
        require(providedGasLimit >= minGasLimit, "LzApp: gas limit is too low");
    }

    function _getGasLimit(bytes memory _adapterParams) internal pure virtual returns (uint gasLimit) {
        require(_adapterParams.length >= 34, "LzApp: invalid adapterParams");
        assembly {
            gasLimit := mload(add(_adapterParams, 34))
        }
    }

    function _checkPayloadSize(uint16 _dstChainId, uint _payloadSize) internal view virtual {
        uint payloadSizeLimit = payloadSizeLimitLookup[_dstChainId];
        if (payloadSizeLimit == 0) { // use default if not set
            payloadSizeLimit = DEFAULT_PAYLOAD_SIZE_LIMIT;
        }
        require(_payloadSize <= payloadSizeLimit, "LzApp: payload size is too large");
    }

    //---------------------------UserApplication config----------------------------------------
    function getConfig(uint16 _version, uint16 _chainId, address, uint _configType) external view returns (bytes memory) {
        return lzEndpoint.getConfig(_version, _chainId, address(this), _configType);
    }

    // generic config for LayerZero user Application
    function setConfig(uint16 _version, uint16 _chainId, uint _configType, bytes calldata _config) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setConfig(_version, _chainId, _configType, _config);
    }

    function setSendVersion(uint16 _version) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setSendVersion(_version);
    }

    function setReceiveVersion(uint16 _version) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setReceiveVersion(_version);
    }

    function forceResumeReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.forceResumeReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress);
    }

    // _path = abi.encodePacked(remoteAddress, localAddress)
    // this function set the trusted path for the cross-chain communication
    function setTrustedRemote(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _path) external onlyOwner {
        trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId] = _path;
        emit SetTrustedRemote(_srcChainId, _path);
    }

    function setTrustedRemoteAddress(uint16 _remoteChainId, bytes calldata _remoteAddress) external onlyOwner {
        trustedRemoteLookup[_remoteChainId] = abi.encodePacked(_remoteAddress, address(this));
        emit SetTrustedRemoteAddress(_remoteChainId, _remoteAddress);
    }

    function getTrustedRemoteAddress(uint16 _remoteChainId) external view returns (bytes memory) {
        bytes memory path = trustedRemoteLookup[_remoteChainId];
        require(path.length != 0, "LzApp: no trusted path record");
        return path.slice(0, path.length - 20); // the last 20 bytes should be address(this)
    }

    function setPrecrime(address _precrime) external onlyOwner {
        precrime = _precrime;
        emit SetPrecrime(_precrime);
    }

    function setMinDstGas(uint16 _dstChainId, uint16 _packetType, uint _minGas) external onlyOwner {
        require(_minGas > 0, "LzApp: invalid minGas");
        minDstGasLookup[_dstChainId][_packetType] = _minGas;
        emit SetMinDstGas(_dstChainId, _packetType, _minGas);
    }

    // if the size is 0, it means default size limit
    function setPayloadSizeLimit(uint16 _dstChainId, uint _size) external onlyOwner {
        payloadSizeLimitLookup[_dstChainId] = _size;
    }

    //--------------------------- VIEW FUNCTION ----------------------------------------
    function isTrustedRemote(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress) external view returns (bool) {
        bytes memory trustedSource = trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId];
        return keccak256(trustedSource) == keccak256(_srcAddress);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./LzApp.sol";
import "../util/ExcessivelySafeCall.sol";

/*
 * the default LayerZero messaging behaviour is blocking, i.e. any failed message will block the channel
 * this abstract class try-catch all fail messages and store locally for future retry. hence, non-blocking
 * NOTE: if the srcAddress is not configured properly, it will still block the message pathway from (srcChainId, srcAddress)
 */
abstract contract NonblockingLzApp is LzApp {
    using ExcessivelySafeCall for address;

    constructor(address _endpoint) LzApp(_endpoint) {}

    mapping(uint16 => mapping(bytes => mapping(uint64 => bytes32))) public failedMessages;

    event MessageFailed(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes _payload, bytes _reason);
    event RetryMessageSuccess(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes32 _payloadHash);

    // overriding the virtual function in LzReceiver
    function _blockingLzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes memory _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes memory _payload) internal virtual override {
        (bool success, bytes memory reason) = address(this).excessivelySafeCall(gasleft(), 150, abi.encodeWithSelector(this.nonblockingLzReceive.selector, _srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload));
        // try-catch all errors/exceptions
        if (!success) {
            _storeFailedMessage(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload, reason);
        }
    }

    function _storeFailedMessage(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes memory _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes memory _payload, bytes memory _reason) internal virtual {
        failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce] = keccak256(_payload);
        emit MessageFailed(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload, _reason);
    }

    function nonblockingLzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes calldata _payload) public virtual {
        // only internal transaction
        require(_msgSender() == address(this), "NonblockingLzApp: caller must be LzApp");
        _nonblockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
    }

    //@notice override this function
    function _nonblockingLzReceive(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes memory _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes memory _payload) internal virtual;

    function retryMessage(uint16 _srcChainId, bytes calldata _srcAddress, uint64 _nonce, bytes calldata _payload) public payable virtual {
        // assert there is message to retry
        bytes32 payloadHash = failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce];
        require(payloadHash != bytes32(0), "NonblockingLzApp: no stored message");
        require(keccak256(_payload) == payloadHash, "NonblockingLzApp: invalid payload");
        // clear the stored message
        failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce] = bytes32(0);
        // execute the message. revert if it fails again
        _nonblockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
        emit RetryMessageSuccess(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, payloadHash);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
/*
 * @title Solidity Bytes Arrays Utils
 * @author Gonçalo Sá <[email protected]>
 *
 * @dev Bytes tightly packed arrays utility library for ethereum contracts written in Solidity.
 *      The library lets you concatenate, slice and type cast bytes arrays both in memory and storage.
 */
pragma solidity >=0.8.0 <0.9.0;


library BytesLib {
    function concat(
        bytes memory _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    )
    internal
    pure
    returns (bytes memory)
    {
        bytes memory tempBytes;

        assembly {
        // Get a location of some free memory and store it in tempBytes as
        // Solidity does for memory variables.
            tempBytes := mload(0x40)

        // Store the length of the first bytes array at the beginning of
        // the memory for tempBytes.
            let length := mload(_preBytes)
            mstore(tempBytes, length)

        // Maintain a memory counter for the current write location in the
        // temp bytes array by adding the 32 bytes for the array length to
        // the starting location.
            let mc := add(tempBytes, 0x20)
        // Stop copying when the memory counter reaches the length of the
        // first bytes array.
            let end := add(mc, length)

            for {
            // Initialize a copy counter to the start of the _preBytes data,
            // 32 bytes into its memory.
                let cc := add(_preBytes, 0x20)
            } lt(mc, end) {
            // Increase both counters by 32 bytes each iteration.
                mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                cc := add(cc, 0x20)
            } {
            // Write the _preBytes data into the tempBytes memory 32 bytes
            // at a time.
                mstore(mc, mload(cc))
            }

        // Add the length of _postBytes to the current length of tempBytes
        // and store it as the new length in the first 32 bytes of the
        // tempBytes memory.
            length := mload(_postBytes)
            mstore(tempBytes, add(length, mload(tempBytes)))

        // Move the memory counter back from a multiple of 0x20 to the
        // actual end of the _preBytes data.
            mc := end
        // Stop copying when the memory counter reaches the new combined
        // length of the arrays.
            end := add(mc, length)

            for {
                let cc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
            } lt(mc, end) {
                mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                cc := add(cc, 0x20)
            } {
                mstore(mc, mload(cc))
            }

        // Update the free-memory pointer by padding our last write location
        // to 32 bytes: add 31 bytes to the end of tempBytes to move to the
        // next 32 byte block, then round down to the nearest multiple of
        // 32. If the sum of the length of the two arrays is zero then add
        // one before rounding down to leave a blank 32 bytes (the length block with 0).
            mstore(0x40, and(
            add(add(end, iszero(add(length, mload(_preBytes)))), 31),
            not(31) // Round down to the nearest 32 bytes.
            ))
        }

        return tempBytes;
    }

    function concatStorage(bytes storage _preBytes, bytes memory _postBytes) internal {
        assembly {
        // Read the first 32 bytes of _preBytes storage, which is the length
        // of the array. (We don't need to use the offset into the slot
        // because arrays use the entire slot.)
            let fslot := sload(_preBytes.slot)
        // Arrays of 31 bytes or less have an even value in their slot,
        // while longer arrays have an odd value. The actual length is
        // the slot divided by two for odd values, and the lowest order
        // byte divided by two for even values.
        // If the slot is even, bitwise and the slot with 255 and divide by
        // two to get the length. If the slot is odd, bitwise and the slot
        // with -1 and divide by two.
            let slength := div(and(fslot, sub(mul(0x100, iszero(and(fslot, 1))), 1)), 2)
            let mlength := mload(_postBytes)
            let newlength := add(slength, mlength)
        // slength can contain both the length and contents of the array
        // if length < 32 bytes so let's prepare for that
        // v. http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/miscellaneous.html#layout-of-state-variables-in-storage
            switch add(lt(slength, 32), lt(newlength, 32))
            case 2 {
            // Since the new array still fits in the slot, we just need to
            // update the contents of the slot.
            // uint256(bytes_storage) = uint256(bytes_storage) + uint256(bytes_memory) + new_length
                sstore(
                _preBytes.slot,
                // all the modifications to the slot are inside this
                // next block
                add(
                // we can just add to the slot contents because the
                // bytes we want to change are the LSBs
                fslot,
                add(
                mul(
                div(
                // load the bytes from memory
                mload(add(_postBytes, 0x20)),
                // zero all bytes to the right
                exp(0x100, sub(32, mlength))
                ),
                // and now shift left the number of bytes to
                // leave space for the length in the slot
                exp(0x100, sub(32, newlength))
                ),
                // increase length by the double of the memory
                // bytes length
                mul(mlength, 2)
                )
                )
                )
            }
            case 1 {
            // The stored value fits in the slot, but the combined value
            // will exceed it.
            // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
                let sc := add(keccak256(0x0, 0x20), div(slength, 32))

            // save new length
                sstore(_preBytes.slot, add(mul(newlength, 2), 1))

            // The contents of the _postBytes array start 32 bytes into
            // the structure. Our first read should obtain the `submod`
            // bytes that can fit into the unused space in the last word
            // of the stored array. To get this, we read 32 bytes starting
            // from `submod`, so the data we read overlaps with the array
            // contents by `submod` bytes. Masking the lowest-order
            // `submod` bytes allows us to add that value directly to the
            // stored value.

                let submod := sub(32, slength)
                let mc := add(_postBytes, submod)
                let end := add(_postBytes, mlength)
                let mask := sub(exp(0x100, submod), 1)

                sstore(
                sc,
                add(
                and(
                fslot,
                0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff00
                ),
                and(mload(mc), mask)
                )
                )

                for {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } {
                    sstore(sc, mload(mc))
                }

                mask := exp(0x100, sub(mc, end))

                sstore(sc, mul(div(mload(mc), mask), mask))
            }
            default {
            // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
            // Start copying to the last used word of the stored array.
                let sc := add(keccak256(0x0, 0x20), div(slength, 32))

            // save new length
                sstore(_preBytes.slot, add(mul(newlength, 2), 1))

            // Copy over the first `submod` bytes of the new data as in
            // case 1 above.
                let slengthmod := mod(slength, 32)
                let mlengthmod := mod(mlength, 32)
                let submod := sub(32, slengthmod)
                let mc := add(_postBytes, submod)
                let end := add(_postBytes, mlength)
                let mask := sub(exp(0x100, submod), 1)

                sstore(sc, add(sload(sc), and(mload(mc), mask)))

                for {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } {
                    sstore(sc, mload(mc))
                }

                mask := exp(0x100, sub(mc, end))

                sstore(sc, mul(div(mload(mc), mask), mask))
            }
        }
    }

    function slice(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start,
        uint256 _length
    )
    internal
    pure
    returns (bytes memory)
    {
        require(_length + 31 >= _length, "slice_overflow");
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + _length, "slice_outOfBounds");

        bytes memory tempBytes;

        assembly {
            switch iszero(_length)
            case 0 {
            // Get a location of some free memory and store it in tempBytes as
            // Solidity does for memory variables.
                tempBytes := mload(0x40)

            // The first word of the slice result is potentially a partial
            // word read from the original array. To read it, we calculate
            // the length of that partial word and start copying that many
            // bytes into the array. The first word we copy will start with
            // data we don't care about, but the last `lengthmod` bytes will
            // land at the beginning of the contents of the new array. When
            // we're done copying, we overwrite the full first word with
            // the actual length of the slice.
                let lengthmod := and(_length, 31)

            // The multiplication in the next line is necessary
            // because when slicing multiples of 32 bytes (lengthmod == 0)
            // the following copy loop was copying the origin's length
            // and then ending prematurely not copying everything it should.
                let mc := add(add(tempBytes, lengthmod), mul(0x20, iszero(lengthmod)))
                let end := add(mc, _length)

                for {
                // The multiplication in the next line has the same exact purpose
                // as the one above.
                    let cc := add(add(add(_bytes, lengthmod), mul(0x20, iszero(lengthmod))), _start)
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    cc := add(cc, 0x20)
                } {
                    mstore(mc, mload(cc))
                }

                mstore(tempBytes, _length)

            //update free-memory pointer
            //allocating the array padded to 32 bytes like the compiler does now
                mstore(0x40, and(add(mc, 31), not(31)))
            }
            //if we want a zero-length slice let's just return a zero-length array
            default {
                tempBytes := mload(0x40)
            //zero out the 32 bytes slice we are about to return
            //we need to do it because Solidity does not garbage collect
                mstore(tempBytes, 0)

                mstore(0x40, add(tempBytes, 0x20))
            }
        }

        return tempBytes;
    }

    function toAddress(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (address) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 20, "toAddress_outOfBounds");
        address tempAddress;

        assembly {
            tempAddress := div(mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start)), 0x1000000000000000000000000)
        }

        return tempAddress;
    }

    function toUint8(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint8) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 1 , "toUint8_outOfBounds");
        uint8 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x1), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint16(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint16) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 2, "toUint16_outOfBounds");
        uint16 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x2), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint32(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint32) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 4, "toUint32_outOfBounds");
        uint32 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x4), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint64(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint64) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 8, "toUint64_outOfBounds");
        uint64 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x8), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint96(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint96) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 12, "toUint96_outOfBounds");
        uint96 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0xc), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint128(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint128) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 16, "toUint128_outOfBounds");
        uint128 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x10), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint256(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 32, "toUint256_outOfBounds");
        uint256 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toBytes32(bytes memory _bytes, uint256 _start) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 32, "toBytes32_outOfBounds");
        bytes32 tempBytes32;

        assembly {
            tempBytes32 := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start))
        }

        return tempBytes32;
    }

    function equal(bytes memory _preBytes, bytes memory _postBytes) internal pure returns (bool) {
        bool success = true;

        assembly {
            let length := mload(_preBytes)

        // if lengths don't match the arrays are not equal
            switch eq(length, mload(_postBytes))
            case 1 {
            // cb is a circuit breaker in the for loop since there's
            //  no said feature for inline assembly loops
            // cb = 1 - don't breaker
            // cb = 0 - break
                let cb := 1

                let mc := add(_preBytes, 0x20)
                let end := add(mc, length)

                for {
                    let cc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
                // the next line is the loop condition:
                // while(uint256(mc < end) + cb == 2)
                } eq(add(lt(mc, end), cb), 2) {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    cc := add(cc, 0x20)
                } {
                // if any of these checks fails then arrays are not equal
                    if iszero(eq(mload(mc), mload(cc))) {
                    // unsuccess:
                        success := 0
                        cb := 0
                    }
                }
            }
            default {
            // unsuccess:
                success := 0
            }
        }

        return success;
    }

    function equalStorage(
        bytes storage _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    )
    internal
    view
    returns (bool)
    {
        bool success = true;

        assembly {
        // we know _preBytes_offset is 0
            let fslot := sload(_preBytes.slot)
        // Decode the length of the stored array like in concatStorage().
            let slength := div(and(fslot, sub(mul(0x100, iszero(and(fslot, 1))), 1)), 2)
            let mlength := mload(_postBytes)

        // if lengths don't match the arrays are not equal
            switch eq(slength, mlength)
            case 1 {
            // slength can contain both the length and contents of the array
            // if length < 32 bytes so let's prepare for that
            // v. http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/miscellaneous.html#layout-of-state-variables-in-storage
                if iszero(iszero(slength)) {
                    switch lt(slength, 32)
                    case 1 {
                    // blank the last byte which is the length
                        fslot := mul(div(fslot, 0x100), 0x100)

                        if iszero(eq(fslot, mload(add(_postBytes, 0x20)))) {
                        // unsuccess:
                            success := 0
                        }
                    }
                    default {
                    // cb is a circuit breaker in the for loop since there's
                    //  no said feature for inline assembly loops
                    // cb = 1 - don't breaker
                    // cb = 0 - break
                        let cb := 1

                    // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                        mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
                        let sc := keccak256(0x0, 0x20)

                        let mc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
                        let end := add(mc, mlength)

                    // the next line is the loop condition:
                    // while(uint256(mc < end) + cb == 2)
                        for {} eq(add(lt(mc, end), cb), 2) {
                            sc := add(sc, 1)
                            mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                        } {
                            if iszero(eq(sload(sc), mload(mc))) {
                            // unsuccess:
                                success := 0
                                cb := 0
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            default {
            // unsuccess:
                success := 0
            }
        }

        return success;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT OR Apache-2.0
pragma solidity >=0.7.6;

library ExcessivelySafeCall {
    uint256 constant LOW_28_MASK =
    0x00000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff;

    /// @notice Use when you _really_ really _really_ don't trust the called
    /// contract. This prevents the called contract from causing reversion of
    /// the caller in as many ways as we can.
    /// @dev The main difference between this and a solidity low-level call is
    /// that we limit the number of bytes that the callee can cause to be
    /// copied to caller memory. This prevents stupid things like malicious
    /// contracts returning 10,000,000 bytes causing a local OOG when copying
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _target The address to call
    /// @param _gas The amount of gas to forward to the remote contract
    /// @param _maxCopy The maximum number of bytes of returndata to copy
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _calldata The data to send to the remote contract
    /// @return success and returndata, as `.call()`. Returndata is capped to
    /// `_maxCopy` bytes.
    function excessivelySafeCall(
        address _target,
        uint256 _gas,
        uint16 _maxCopy,
        bytes memory _calldata
    ) internal returns (bool, bytes memory) {
        // set up for assembly call
        uint256 _toCopy;
        bool _success;
        bytes memory _returnData = new bytes(_maxCopy);
        // dispatch message to recipient
        // by assembly calling "handle" function
        // we call via assembly to avoid memcopying a very large returndata
        // returned by a malicious contract
        assembly {
            _success := call(
            _gas, // gas
            _target, // recipient
            0, // ether value
            add(_calldata, 0x20), // inloc
            mload(_calldata), // inlen
            0, // outloc
            0 // outlen
            )
        // limit our copy to 256 bytes
            _toCopy := returndatasize()
            if gt(_toCopy, _maxCopy) {
                _toCopy := _maxCopy
            }
        // Store the length of the copied bytes
            mstore(_returnData, _toCopy)
        // copy the bytes from returndata[0:_toCopy]
            returndatacopy(add(_returnData, 0x20), 0, _toCopy)
        }
        return (_success, _returnData);
    }

    /// @notice Use when you _really_ really _really_ don't trust the called
    /// contract. This prevents the called contract from causing reversion of
    /// the caller in as many ways as we can.
    /// @dev The main difference between this and a solidity low-level call is
    /// that we limit the number of bytes that the callee can cause to be
    /// copied to caller memory. This prevents stupid things like malicious
    /// contracts returning 10,000,000 bytes causing a local OOG when copying
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _target The address to call
    /// @param _gas The amount of gas to forward to the remote contract
    /// @param _maxCopy The maximum number of bytes of returndata to copy
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _calldata The data to send to the remote contract
    /// @return success and returndata, as `.call()`. Returndata is capped to
    /// `_maxCopy` bytes.
    function excessivelySafeStaticCall(
        address _target,
        uint256 _gas,
        uint16 _maxCopy,
        bytes memory _calldata
    ) internal view returns (bool, bytes memory) {
        // set up for assembly call
        uint256 _toCopy;
        bool _success;
        bytes memory _returnData = new bytes(_maxCopy);
        // dispatch message to recipient
        // by assembly calling "handle" function
        // we call via assembly to avoid memcopying a very large returndata
        // returned by a malicious contract
        assembly {
            _success := staticcall(
            _gas, // gas
            _target, // recipient
            add(_calldata, 0x20), // inloc
            mload(_calldata), // inlen
            0, // outloc
            0 // outlen
            )
        // limit our copy to 256 bytes
            _toCopy := returndatasize()
            if gt(_toCopy, _maxCopy) {
                _toCopy := _maxCopy
            }
        // Store the length of the copied bytes
            mstore(_returnData, _toCopy)
        // copy the bytes from returndata[0:_toCopy]
            returndatacopy(add(_returnData, 0x20), 0, _toCopy)
        }
        return (_success, _returnData);
    }

    /**
     * @notice Swaps function selectors in encoded contract calls
     * @dev Allows reuse of encoded calldata for functions with identical
     * argument types but different names. It simply swaps out the first 4 bytes
     * for the new selector. This function modifies memory in place, and should
     * only be used with caution.
     * @param _newSelector The new 4-byte selector
     * @param _buf The encoded contract args
     */
    function swapSelector(bytes4 _newSelector, bytes memory _buf)
    internal
    pure
    {
        require(_buf.length >= 4);
        uint256 _mask = LOW_28_MASK;
        assembly {
        // load the first word of
            let _word := mload(add(_buf, 0x20))
        // mask out the top 4 bytes
        // /x
            _word := and(_word, _mask)
            _word := or(_newSelector, _word)
            mstore(add(_buf, 0x20), _word)
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (access/Ownable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
 * can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
abstract contract Ownable is Context {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor() {
        _transferOwnership(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        _checkOwner();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the sender is not the owner.
     */
    function _checkOwner() internal view virtual {
        require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(address(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Internal function without access restriction.
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
        address oldOwner = _owner;
        _owner = newOwner;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (security/ReentrancyGuard.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Contract module that helps prevent reentrant calls to a function.
 *
 * Inheriting from `ReentrancyGuard` will make the {nonReentrant} modifier
 * available, which can be applied to functions to make sure there are no nested
 * (reentrant) calls to them.
 *
 * Note that because there is a single `nonReentrant` guard, functions marked as
 * `nonReentrant` may not call one another. This can be worked around by making
 * those functions `private`, and then adding `external` `nonReentrant` entry
 * points to them.
 *
 * TIP: If you would like to learn more about reentrancy and alternative ways
 * to protect against it, check out our blog post
 * https://blog.openzeppelin.com/reentrancy-after-istanbul/[Reentrancy After Istanbul].
 */
abstract contract ReentrancyGuard {
    // Booleans are more expensive than uint256 or any type that takes up a full
    // word because each write operation emits an extra SLOAD to first read the
    // slot's contents, replace the bits taken up by the boolean, and then write
    // back. This is the compiler's defense against contract upgrades and
    // pointer aliasing, and it cannot be disabled.

    // The values being non-zero value makes deployment a bit more expensive,
    // but in exchange the refund on every call to nonReentrant will be lower in
    // amount. Since refunds are capped to a percentage of the total
    // transaction's gas, it is best to keep them low in cases like this one, to
    // increase the likelihood of the full refund coming into effect.
    uint256 private constant _NOT_ENTERED = 1;
    uint256 private constant _ENTERED = 2;

    uint256 private _status;

    constructor() {
        _status = _NOT_ENTERED;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Prevents a contract from calling itself, directly or indirectly.
     * Calling a `nonReentrant` function from another `nonReentrant`
     * function is not supported. It is possible to prevent this from happening
     * by making the `nonReentrant` function external, and making it call a
     * `private` function that does the actual work.
     */
    modifier nonReentrant() {
        _nonReentrantBefore();
        _;
        _nonReentrantAfter();
    }

    function _nonReentrantBefore() private {
        // On the first call to nonReentrant, _status will be _NOT_ENTERED
        require(_status != _ENTERED, "ReentrancyGuard: reentrant call");

        // Any calls to nonReentrant after this point will fail
        _status = _ENTERED;
    }

    function _nonReentrantAfter() private {
        // By storing the original value once again, a refund is triggered (see
        // https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2200)
        _status = _NOT_ENTERED;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/ERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165).interfaceId;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (utils/math/Math.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library Math {
    enum Rounding {
        Down, // Toward negative infinity
        Up, // Toward infinity
        Zero // Toward zero
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
     */
    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
     */
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
     * zero.
     */
    function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b) / 2 can overflow.
        return (a & b) + (a ^ b) / 2;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the ceiling of the division of two numbers.
     *
     * This differs from standard division with `/` in that it rounds up instead
     * of rounding down.
     */
    function ceilDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b - 1) / b can overflow on addition, so we distribute.
        return a == 0 ? 0 : (a - 1) / b + 1;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates floor(x * y / denominator) with full precision. Throws if result overflows a uint256 or denominator == 0
     * @dev Original credit to Remco Bloemen under MIT license (https://xn--2-umb.com/21/muldiv)
     * with further edits by Uniswap Labs also under MIT license.
     */
    function mulDiv(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator
    ) internal pure returns (uint256 result) {
        unchecked {
            // 512-bit multiply [prod1 prod0] = x * y. Compute the product mod 2^256 and mod 2^256 - 1, then use
            // use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to reconstruct the 512 bit result. The result is stored in two 256
            // variables such that product = prod1 * 2^256 + prod0.
            uint256 prod0; // Least significant 256 bits of the product
            uint256 prod1; // Most significant 256 bits of the product
            assembly {
                let mm := mulmod(x, y, not(0))
                prod0 := mul(x, y)
                prod1 := sub(sub(mm, prod0), lt(mm, prod0))
            }

            // Handle non-overflow cases, 256 by 256 division.
            if (prod1 == 0) {
                return prod0 / denominator;
            }

            // Make sure the result is less than 2^256. Also prevents denominator == 0.
            require(denominator > prod1);

            ///////////////////////////////////////////////
            // 512 by 256 division.
            ///////////////////////////////////////////////

            // Make division exact by subtracting the remainder from [prod1 prod0].
            uint256 remainder;
            assembly {
                // Compute remainder using mulmod.
                remainder := mulmod(x, y, denominator)

                // Subtract 256 bit number from 512 bit number.
                prod1 := sub(prod1, gt(remainder, prod0))
                prod0 := sub(prod0, remainder)
            }

            // Factor powers of two out of denominator and compute largest power of two divisor of denominator. Always >= 1.
            // See https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/138556/92363.

            // Does not overflow because the denominator cannot be zero at this stage in the function.
            uint256 twos = denominator & (~denominator + 1);
            assembly {
                // Divide denominator by twos.
                denominator := div(denominator, twos)

                // Divide [prod1 prod0] by twos.
                prod0 := div(prod0, twos)

                // Flip twos such that it is 2^256 / twos. If twos is zero, then it becomes one.
                twos := add(div(sub(0, twos), twos), 1)
            }

            // Shift in bits from prod1 into prod0.
            prod0 |= prod1 * twos;

            // Invert denominator mod 2^256. Now that denominator is an odd number, it has an inverse modulo 2^256 such
            // that denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^256. Compute the inverse by starting with a seed that is correct for
            // four bits. That is, denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^4.
            uint256 inverse = (3 * denominator) ^ 2;

            // Use the Newton-Raphson iteration to improve the precision. Thanks to Hensel's lifting lemma, this also works
            // in modular arithmetic, doubling the correct bits in each step.
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^8
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^16
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^32
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^64
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^128
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^256

            // Because the division is now exact we can divide by multiplying with the modular inverse of denominator.
            // This will give us the correct result modulo 2^256. Since the preconditions guarantee that the outcome is
            // less than 2^256, this is the final result. We don't need to compute the high bits of the result and prod1
            // is no longer required.
            result = prod0 * inverse;
            return result;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates x * y / denominator with full precision, following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function mulDiv(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator,
        Rounding rounding
    ) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = mulDiv(x, y, denominator);
        if (rounding == Rounding.Up && mulmod(x, y, denominator) > 0) {
            result += 1;
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the square root of a number. If the number is not a perfect square, the value is rounded down.
     *
     * Inspired by Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s "Hacker's Delight" (Chapter 11).
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        // For our first guess, we get the biggest power of 2 which is smaller than the square root of the target.
        //
        // We know that the "msb" (most significant bit) of our target number `a` is a power of 2 such that we have
        // `msb(a) <= a < 2*msb(a)`. This value can be written `msb(a)=2**k` with `k=log2(a)`.
        //
        // This can be rewritten `2**log2(a) <= a < 2**(log2(a) + 1)`
        // → `sqrt(2**k) <= sqrt(a) < sqrt(2**(k+1))`
        // → `2**(k/2) <= sqrt(a) < 2**((k+1)/2) <= 2**(k/2 + 1)`
        //
        // Consequently, `2**(log2(a) / 2)` is a good first approximation of `sqrt(a)` with at least 1 correct bit.
        uint256 result = 1 << (log2(a) >> 1);

        // At this point `result` is an estimation with one bit of precision. We know the true value is a uint128,
        // since it is the square root of a uint256. Newton's method converges quadratically (precision doubles at
        // every iteration). We thus need at most 7 iteration to turn our partial result with one bit of precision
        // into the expected uint128 result.
        unchecked {
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            return min(result, a / result);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates sqrt(a), following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = sqrt(a);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && result * result < a ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 128;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                value >>= 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 4 > 0) {
                value >>= 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 2 > 0) {
                value >>= 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 1 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log2(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 1 << result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >= 10**64) {
                value /= 10**64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >= 10**32) {
                value /= 10**32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >= 10**16) {
                value /= 10**16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >= 10**8) {
                value /= 10**8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >= 10**4) {
                value /= 10**4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >= 10**2) {
                value /= 10**2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >= 10**1) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log10(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 10**result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     *
     * Adding one to the result gives the number of pairs of hex symbols needed to represent `value` as a hex string.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log256(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 1 << (result * 8) < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./math/Math.sol";

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant _SYMBOLS = "0123456789abcdef";
    uint8 private constant _ADDRESS_LENGTH = 20;

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 length = Math.log10(value) + 1;
            string memory buffer = new string(length);
            uint256 ptr;
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                ptr := add(buffer, add(32, length))
            }
            while (true) {
                ptr--;
                /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                assembly {
                    mstore8(ptr, byte(mod(value, 10), _SYMBOLS))
                }
                value /= 10;
                if (value == 0) break;
            }
            return buffer;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            return toHexString(value, Math.log256(value) + 1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = _SYMBOLS[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an `address` with fixed length of 20 bytes to its not checksummed ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(address addr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return toHexString(uint256(uint160(addr)), _ADDRESS_LENGTH);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// ERC721ASpecific Contracts v4.2.3
// Creator: Omni-X

pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

import './IERC721ASpecific.sol';

/**
 * @dev Interface of ERC721 token receiver.
 */
interface ERC721A__IERC721Receiver {
    function onERC721Received(
        address operator,
        address from,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external returns (bytes4);
}

/**
 * @title ERC721ASpecific
 *
 * @dev Implementation of the [ERC721](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721)
 * Non-Fungible Token Standard, including the Metadata extension.
 * Optimized for lower gas during batch mints.
 *
 * Token IDs in the mint range (_startTokenId <= tokenId < _getMaxId()), will be treated in storage 
 * as ERC721A, while tokenIds in the global range but outside the mint range will be treated as OZ 721 in storage.
 * This hybrid mechanic is to allow layerZero logic to mint a specific Id on another chain if a user bridges.
 * 
 *
 * Assumptions:
 *
 * - An owner cannot have more than 2**64 - 1 (max value of uint64) of supply.
 * - The maximum token ID cannot exceed 2**256 - 1 (max value of uint256).
 */
contract ERC721ASpecific is IERC721ASpecific {
    // Bypass for a `--via-ir` bug (https://github.com/chiru-labs/ERC721A/pull/364).
    struct TokenApprovalRef {
        address value;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                           CONSTANTS
    // =============================================================
    
    // Mask of an entry in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY = (1 << 64) - 1;

    // The bit position of `numberMinted` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED = 64;

    // The bit position of `numberBurned` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED = 128;

    // The bit position of `aux` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_AUX = 192;

    // Mask of all 256 bits in packed address data except the 64 bits for `aux`.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_AUX_COMPLEMENT = (1 << 192) - 1;

    // The bit position of `startTimestamp` in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP = 160;

    // The bit mask of the `burned` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_BURNED = 1 << 224;

    // The bit position of the `nextInitialized` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED = 225;

    // The bit mask of the `nextInitialized` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED = 1 << 225;

    // The bit position of `extraData` in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA = 232;

    // Mask of all 256 bits in a packed ownership except the 24 bits for `extraData`.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_EXTRA_DATA_COMPLEMENT = (1 << 232) - 1;

    // The mask of the lower 160 bits for addresses.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_ADDRESS = (1 << 160) - 1;

    // The maximum `quantity` that can be minted with {_mintERC2309}.
    // This limit is to prevent overflows on the address data entries.
    // For a limit of 5000, a total of 3.689e15 calls to {_mintERC2309}
    // is required to cause an overflow, which is unrealistic.
    uint256 private constant _MAX_MINT_ERC2309_QUANTITY_LIMIT = 5000;

    // The `Transfer` event signature is given by:
    // `keccak256(bytes("Transfer(address,address,uint256)"))`.
    bytes32 private constant _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE =
        0xddf252ad1be2c89b69c2b068fc378daa952ba7f163c4a11628f55a4df523b3ef;

    // =============================================================
    //                            STORAGE
    // =============================================================

    // The next token ID to be minted.
    uint256 private _currentIndex;

    // The number of tokens burned.
    uint256 private _burnCounter;

    // Token name
    string private _name;

    // Token symbol
    string private _symbol;

    // Mapping from token ID to ownership details
    // An empty struct value does not necessarily mean the token is unowned.
    // See {_packedOwnershipOf} implementation for details.
    //
    // Bits Layout:
    // - [0..159]   `addr`
    // - [160..223] `startTimestamp`
    // - [224]      `burned`
    // - [225]      `nextInitialized`
    // - [232..255] `extraData`
    mapping(uint256 => uint256) private _packedOwnerships;

    // Mapping owner address to address data.
    //
    // Bits Layout:
    // - [0..63]    `balance`
    // - [64..127]  `numberMinted`
    // - [128..191] `numberBurned`
    // - [192..255] `aux`
    mapping(address => uint256) private _packedAddressData;

    // Mapping from token ID to approved address.
    mapping(uint256 => TokenApprovalRef) private _tokenApprovals;

    // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

    // =============================================================
    //                          CONSTRUCTOR
    // =============================================================

    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_, uint256 _startId) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
        _currentIndex = _startId;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                   TOKEN COUNTING OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    function _minTokenId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 0;
    }

    function _getMaxId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 10000;
    }

    function _getMaxGlobalId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 10000;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the starting token ID.
     * To change the starting token ID, please override this function.
     */
    function _startTokenId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the next token ID to be minted.
     */
    function _nextTokenId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _currentIndex;
    }
   

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total amount of tokens minted in the contract.
     */
    function _totalMinted() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        // Counter underflow is impossible as `_currentIndex` does not decrement,
        // and it is initialized to `_startTokenId()`.
        unchecked {
            return _currentIndex - _startTokenId();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total number of tokens burned.
     */
    function _totalBurned() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _burnCounter;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                    ADDRESS DATA OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in `owner`'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        if (owner == address(0)) _revert(BalanceQueryForZeroAddress.selector);
        return _packedAddressData[owner] & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of tokens minted by `owner`.
     */
    function _numberMinted(address owner) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return (_packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of tokens burned by or on behalf of `owner`.
     */
    function _numberBurned(address owner) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return (_packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the auxiliary data for `owner`. (e.g. number of whitelist mint slots used).
     */
    function _getAux(address owner) internal view returns (uint64) {
        return uint64(_packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_AUX);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the auxiliary data for `owner`. (e.g. number of whitelist mint slots used).
     * If there are multiple variables, please pack them into a uint64.
     */
    function _setAux(address owner, uint64 aux) internal virtual {
        uint256 packed = _packedAddressData[owner];
        uint256 auxCasted;
        // Cast `aux` with assembly to avoid redundant masking.
        assembly {
            auxCasted := aux
        }
        packed = (packed & _BITMASK_AUX_COMPLEMENT) | (auxCasted << _BITPOS_AUX);
        _packedAddressData[owner] = packed;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC165
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * [EIP section](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified)
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        // The interface IDs are constants representing the first 4 bytes
        // of the XOR of all function selectors in the interface.
        // See: [ERC165](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165)
        // (e.g. `bytes4(i.functionA.selector ^ i.functionB.selector ^ ...)`)
        return
            interfaceId == 0x01ffc9a7 || // ERC165 interface ID for ERC165.
            interfaceId == 0x80ac58cd || // ERC165 interface ID for ERC721.
            interfaceId == 0x5b5e139f; // ERC165 interface ID for ERC721Metadata.
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        IERC721Metadata
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        if (!_exists(tokenId)) _revert(URIQueryForNonexistentToken.selector);

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length != 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, _toString(tokenId))) : '';
    }

    /**
     * @dev Base URI for computing {tokenURI}. If set, the resulting URI for each
     * token will be the concatenation of the `baseURI` and the `tokenId`. Empty
     * by default, it can be overridden in child contracts.
     */
    function _baseURI() internal view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return '';
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                     OWNERSHIPS OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        return address(uint160(_packedOwnershipOf(tokenId)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Gas spent here starts off proportional to the maximum mint batch size.
     * It gradually moves to O(1) as tokens get transferred around over time.
     * This will only hold valid values for nextInitialized and burned if tokenId is within mint range (_startTokenId <= tokenId <= maxId)
     */
    function _ownershipOf(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (TokenOwnership memory) {
        return _unpackedOwnership(_packedOwnershipOf(tokenId));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the unpacked `TokenOwnership` struct at `index`.
     */
    function _ownershipAt(uint256 index) internal view virtual returns (TokenOwnership memory) {
        return _unpackedOwnership(_packedOwnerships[index]);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether the ownership slot at `index` is initialized.
     * An uninitialized slot does not necessarily mean that the slot has no owner.
     */
    function _ownershipIsInitialized(uint256 index) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _packedOwnerships[index] != 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the ownership slot minted at `index` for efficiency purposes.
     */
    function _initializeOwnershipAt(uint256 index) internal virtual {
        if (_packedOwnerships[index] == 0) {
            _packedOwnerships[index] = _packedOwnershipOf(index);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns the packed ownership data of `tokenId`.
     */
    function _packedOwnershipOf(uint256 tokenId) private view returns (uint256 packed) {
        if (_startTokenId() <= tokenId && tokenId < _currentIndex) {
            packed = _packedOwnerships[tokenId];
            // If the data at the starting slot does not exist, start the scan.
            if (packed == 0) {
                // Invariant:
                // There will always be an initialized ownership slot
                // (i.e. `ownership.addr != address(0) && ownership.burned == false`)
                // before an unintialized ownership slot
                // (i.e. `ownership.addr == address(0) && ownership.burned == false`)
                // Hence, `tokenId` will not underflow.
                //
                // We can directly compare the packed value.
                // If the address is zero, packed will be zero.
                for (;;) {
                    unchecked {
                        packed = _packedOwnerships[--tokenId];
                    }
                    if (packed == 0) continue;
                    if (packed & _BITMASK_BURNED == 0) return packed;
                    // Otherwise, the token is burned, and we must revert.
                    // This handles the case of batch burned tokens, where only the burned bit
                    // of the starting slot is set, and remaining slots are left uninitialized.
                    _revert(OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken.selector);
                }
            }
            // Otherwise, the data exists and we can skip the scan.
            // This is possible because we have already achieved the target condition.
            // This saves 2143 gas on transfers of initialized tokens.
            // If the token is not burned, return `packed`. Otherwise, revert.
            if (packed & _BITMASK_BURNED == 0) return packed;
        } else if (tokenId > 0 && tokenId <= _getMaxGlobalId()) {
            packed = _packedOwnerships[tokenId];
            if (packed != 0) return packed;
        }
        _revert(OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken.selector);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the unpacked `TokenOwnership` struct from `packed`.
     */
    function _unpackedOwnership(uint256 packed) private pure returns (TokenOwnership memory ownership) {
        ownership.addr = address(uint160(packed));
        ownership.startTimestamp = uint64(packed >> _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP);
        ownership.burned = packed & _BITMASK_BURNED != 0;
        ownership.extraData = uint24(packed >> _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Packs ownership data into a single uint256.
     */
    function _packOwnershipData(address owner, uint256 flags) private view returns (uint256 result) {
        assembly {
            // Mask `owner` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            owner := and(owner, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // `owner | (block.timestamp << _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP) | flags`.
            result := or(owner, or(shl(_BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP, timestamp()), flags))
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the `nextInitialized` flag set if `quantity` equals 1.
     */
    function _nextInitializedFlag(uint256 quantity) private pure returns (uint256 result) {
        // For branchless setting of the `nextInitialized` flag.
        assembly {
            // `(quantity == 1) << _BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED`.
            result := shl(_BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED, eq(quantity, 1))
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                      APPROVAL OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account. See {ERC721A-_approve}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public payable virtual override {
        _approve(to, tokenId, true);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        if (!_exists(tokenId)) _revert(ApprovalQueryForNonexistentToken.selector);

        return _tokenApprovals[tokenId].value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom}
     * for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        _operatorApprovals[_msgSenderERC721A()][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(_msgSenderERC721A(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return _operatorApprovals[owner][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `tokenId` exists.
     *
     * Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Tokens start existing when they are minted. See {_mint}.
     */
    function _exists(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool result) {

        if (_startTokenId() <= tokenId && tokenId < _currentIndex) {
                uint256 packed;
                while ((packed = _packedOwnerships[tokenId]) == 0) --tokenId;
                result = packed & _BITMASK_BURNED == 0;
            
        } else {
            if (tokenId > 0 && _getMaxGlobalId() >= tokenId) {
                result = _packedOwnerships[tokenId] != 0;
            }
            
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `msgSender` is equal to `approvedAddress` or `owner`.
     */
    function _isSenderApprovedOrOwner(
        address approvedAddress,
        address owner,
        address msgSender
    ) private pure returns (bool result) {
        assembly {
            // Mask `owner` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            owner := and(owner, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // Mask `msgSender` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            msgSender := and(msgSender, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // `msgSender == owner || msgSender == approvedAddress`.
            result := or(eq(msgSender, owner), eq(msgSender, approvedAddress))
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the storage slot and value for the approved address of `tokenId`.
     */
    function _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(uint256 tokenId)
        private
        view
        returns (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress)
    {
        TokenApprovalRef storage tokenApproval = _tokenApprovals[tokenId];
        // The following is equivalent to `approvedAddress = _tokenApprovals[tokenId].value`.
        assembly {
            approvedAddressSlot := tokenApproval.slot
            approvedAddress := sload(approvedAddressSlot)
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                      TRANSFER OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================


    /**
     * @dev This function is called by and only by LayerZero ONFT721A
     * 
     * This function bypasses token approvals because of the above assumption 
     *
     * This function should act just as transferFrom (minus the approval) for tokenIds in this chains mint range
     * Otherwise this function should act just as transferFrom minus adjusting nextInitialized because Ids in this 
     * range are treated as OZ 721.
     */
    function bridgeTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal {
    
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked = _packedOwnershipOf(tokenId);
        from = address(uint160(uint256(uint160(from)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS));
        if (address(uint160(prevOwnershipPacked)) != from) _revert(TransferFromIncorrectOwner.selector);

        if (_startTokenId() <= tokenId && tokenId <= _getMaxId()) {
            unchecked {
                // We can directly increment and decrement the balances.
                --_packedAddressData[from]; // Updates: `balance -= 1`.
                ++_packedAddressData[to]; // Updates: `balance += 1`.

                // Updates:
                // - `address` to the next owner.
                // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of transfering.
                // - `burned` to `false`.
                // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
                _packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                    to,
                    0
                );

                // If the next slot may not have been initialized (i.e. `nextInitialized == false`) .
                if (prevOwnershipPacked & _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED == 0) {
                    uint256 nextTokenId = tokenId + 1;
                    // If the next slot's address is zero and not burned (i.e. packed value is zero).
                    if (_packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] == 0) {
                        // If the next slot is within bounds.
                        if (nextTokenId != _currentIndex) {
                            // Initialize the next slot to maintain correctness for `ownerOf(tokenId + 1)`.
                            _packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] = prevOwnershipPacked;
                        }
                    }
                }

            }

        } else {

            unchecked {
                // We can directly increment and decrement the balances.
                --_packedAddressData[from]; // Updates: `balance -= 1`.
                ++_packedAddressData[to]; // Updates: `balance += 1`.

                // Updates:
                // - `address` to the next owner.
                // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of transfering.
                // - `burned` to `false`.
                // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
                _packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                    to,
                    0
                );

                // no need to adjust next initialized value since tokenIds not in the mint are mapped one to one with an owner (like OZ) unlike tokenIds in the mintRange

            }


        }
       
        uint256 toMasked = uint256(uint160(to)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            // Emit the `Transfer` event.
            log4(
                0, // Start of data (0, since no data).
                0, // End of data (0, since no data).
                _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, // Signature.
                from, // `from`.
                toMasked, // `to`.
                tokenId // `tokenId`.
            )
        }
        if (toMasked == 0) _revert(TransferToZeroAddress.selector);
        
    }

    
    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public payable virtual override {
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked = _packedOwnershipOf(tokenId);

        // Mask `from` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
        from = address(uint160(uint256(uint160(from)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS));

        if (address(uint160(prevOwnershipPacked)) != from) _revert(TransferFromIncorrectOwner.selector);

        (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress) = _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(tokenId);

        // The nested ifs save around 20+ gas over a compound boolean condition.
        if (!_isSenderApprovedOrOwner(approvedAddress, from, _msgSenderERC721A()))
            if (!isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSenderERC721A())) _revert(TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved.selector);

        _beforeTokenTransfers(from, to, tokenId, 1);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner.
        assembly {
            if approvedAddress {
                // This is equivalent to `delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId]`.
                sstore(approvedAddressSlot, 0)
            }
        }

        // Underflow of the sender's balance is impossible because we check for
        // ownership above and the recipient's balance can't realistically overflow.
        // Counter overflow is incredibly unrealistic as `tokenId` would have to be 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // We can directly increment and decrement the balances.
            --_packedAddressData[from]; // Updates: `balance -= 1`.
            ++_packedAddressData[to]; // Updates: `balance += 1`.

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the next owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of transfering.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
            _packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED | _nextExtraData(from, to, prevOwnershipPacked)
            );

            // If the next slot may not have been initialized (i.e. `nextInitialized == false`) .
            if (prevOwnershipPacked & _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED == 0) {
                uint256 nextTokenId = tokenId + 1;
                // If the next slot's address is zero and not burned (i.e. packed value is zero).
                if (_packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] == 0) {
                    // If the next slot is within bounds.
                    if (nextTokenId != _currentIndex) {
                        // Initialize the next slot to maintain correctness for `ownerOf(tokenId + 1)`.
                        _packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] = prevOwnershipPacked;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // Mask `to` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
        uint256 toMasked = uint256(uint160(to)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            // Emit the `Transfer` event.
            log4(
                0, // Start of data (0, since no data).
                0, // End of data (0, since no data).
                _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, // Signature.
                from, // `from`.
                toMasked, // `to`.
                tokenId // `tokenId`.
            )
        }
        if (toMasked == 0) _revert(TransferToZeroAddress.selector);

        _afterTokenTransfers(from, to, tokenId, 1);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '')`.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public payable virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '');
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) public payable virtual override {
        transferFrom(from, to, tokenId);
        if (to.code.length != 0)
            if (!_checkContractOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, _data)) {
                _revert(TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer.selector);
            }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before a set of serially-ordered token IDs
     * are about to be transferred. This includes minting.
     * And also called before burning one token.
     *
     * `startTokenId` - the first token ID to be transferred.
     * `quantity` - the amount to be transferred.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` will be burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfers(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 startTokenId,
        uint256 quantity
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called after a set of serially-ordered token IDs
     * have been transferred. This includes minting.
     * And also called after one token has been burned.
     *
     * `startTokenId` - the first token ID to be transferred.
     * `quantity` - the amount to be transferred.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` has been
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` has been minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` has been burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _afterTokenTransfers(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 startTokenId,
        uint256 quantity
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Private function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target contract.
     *
     * `from` - Previous owner of the given token ID.
     * `to` - Target address that will receive the token.
     * `tokenId` - Token ID to be transferred.
     * `_data` - Optional data to send along with the call.
     *
     * Returns whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value.
     */
    function _checkContractOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        try ERC721A__IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received(_msgSenderERC721A(), from, tokenId, _data) returns (
            bytes4 retval
        ) {
            return retval == ERC721A__IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received.selector;
        } catch (bytes memory reason) {
            if (reason.length == 0) {
                _revert(TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer.selector);
            }
            assembly {
                revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
            }
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        MINT OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================
    /**
     * @dev minting function only used by LZ ONFT721A contract. This 
     * function is only called in the case someone bridge to this chain
     * and the tokenId doesn't already exist and is owned by the NFT contract
     *
     *
     */
    function bridgeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal {
        require(tokenId > 0 && tokenId <= _getMaxGlobalId());
        require(tokenId < _startTokenId() || tokenId > _getMaxId());
        

         unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of minting.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `quantity == 1`.
            _packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                0
            );
            
            // I believe these operations are unecessary since quantity is always 1
            _packedAddressData[to] += 1 * ((1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) | 1);

            // Mask `to` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            uint256 toMasked = uint256(uint160(to)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS;

            if (toMasked == 0) _revert(MintToZeroAddress.selector);

            assembly {
                    // Emit the `Transfer` event.
                    log4(
                        0, // Start of data (0, since no data).
                        0, // End of data (0, since no data).
                        _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, // Signature.
                        0, // `address(0)`.
                        toMasked, // `to`.
                        tokenId // `tokenId`.
                    )
            }
        }
        

    }
    

    /**
     * @dev Mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event for each mint.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        uint256 startTokenId = _currentIndex;
        if (quantity == 0) _revert(MintZeroQuantity.selector);

        _beforeTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);

        // Overflows are incredibly unrealistic.
        // `balance` and `numberMinted` have a maximum limit of 2**64.
        // `tokenId` has a maximum limit of 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of minting.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `quantity == 1`.
            _packedOwnerships[startTokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _nextInitializedFlag(quantity) | _nextExtraData(address(0), to, 0)
            );

            // Updates:
            // - `balance += quantity`.
            // - `numberMinted += quantity`.
            //
            // We can directly add to the `balance` and `numberMinted`.
            _packedAddressData[to] += quantity * ((1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) | 1);

            // Mask `to` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            uint256 toMasked = uint256(uint160(to)) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS;

            if (toMasked == 0) _revert(MintToZeroAddress.selector);

            uint256 end = startTokenId + quantity;
            uint256 tokenId = startTokenId;

            do {
                assembly {
                    // Emit the `Transfer` event.
                    log4(
                        0, // Start of data (0, since no data).
                        0, // End of data (0, since no data).
                        _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, // Signature.
                        0, // `address(0)`.
                        toMasked, // `to`.
                        tokenId // `tokenId`.
                    )
                }
                // The `!=` check ensures that large values of `quantity`
                // that overflows uint256 will make the loop run out of gas.
            } while (++tokenId != end);

            _currentIndex = end;
        }
        _afterTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * This function is intended for efficient minting only during contract creation.
     *
     * It emits only one {ConsecutiveTransfer} as defined in
     * [ERC2309](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2309),
     * instead of a sequence of {Transfer} event(s).
     *
     * Calling this function outside of contract creation WILL make your contract
     * non-compliant with the ERC721 standard.
     * For full ERC721 compliance, substituting ERC721 {Transfer} event(s) with the ERC2309
     * {ConsecutiveTransfer} event is only permissible during contract creation.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * Emits a {ConsecutiveTransfer} event.
     */
    function _mintERC2309(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        uint256 startTokenId = _currentIndex;
        if (to == address(0)) _revert(MintToZeroAddress.selector);
        if (quantity == 0) _revert(MintZeroQuantity.selector);
        if (quantity > _MAX_MINT_ERC2309_QUANTITY_LIMIT) _revert(MintERC2309QuantityExceedsLimit.selector);

        _beforeTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);

        // Overflows are unrealistic due to the above check for `quantity` to be below the limit.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `balance += quantity`.
            // - `numberMinted += quantity`.
            //
            // We can directly add to the `balance` and `numberMinted`.
            _packedAddressData[to] += quantity * ((1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) | 1);

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of minting.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `quantity == 1`.
            _packedOwnerships[startTokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _nextInitializedFlag(quantity) | _nextExtraData(address(0), to, 0)
            );

            emit ConsecutiveTransfer(startTokenId, startTokenId + quantity - 1, address(0), to);

            _currentIndex = startTokenId + quantity;
        }
        _afterTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called for each safe transfer.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * See {_mint}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event for each mint.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 quantity,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, quantity);

        unchecked {
            if (to.code.length != 0) {
                uint256 end = _currentIndex;
                uint256 index = end - quantity;
                do {
                    if (!_checkContractOnERC721Received(address(0), to, index++, _data)) {
                        _revert(TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer.selector);
                    }
                } while (index < end);
                // Reentrancy protection.
                if (_currentIndex != end) _revert(bytes4(0));
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_safeMint(to, quantity, '')`.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, quantity, '');
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                       APPROVAL OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_approve(to, tokenId, false)`.
     */
    function _approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _approve(to, tokenId, false);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the
     * zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function _approve(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bool approvalCheck
    ) internal virtual {
        address owner = ownerOf(tokenId);

        if (approvalCheck && _msgSenderERC721A() != owner)
            if (!isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSenderERC721A())) {
                _revert(ApprovalCallerNotOwnerNorApproved.selector);
            }

        _tokenApprovals[tokenId].value = to;
        emit Approval(owner, to, tokenId);
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        BURN OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_burn(tokenId, false)`.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _burn(tokenId, false);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId, bool approvalCheck) internal virtual {
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked = _packedOwnershipOf(tokenId);

        address from = address(uint160(prevOwnershipPacked));

        (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress) = _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(tokenId);

        if (approvalCheck) {
            // The nested ifs save around 20+ gas over a compound boolean condition.
            if (!_isSenderApprovedOrOwner(approvedAddress, from, _msgSenderERC721A()))
                if (!isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSenderERC721A())) _revert(TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved.selector);
        }

        _beforeTokenTransfers(from, address(0), tokenId, 1);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner.
        assembly {
            if approvedAddress {
                // This is equivalent to `delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId]`.
                sstore(approvedAddressSlot, 0)
            }
        }

        // Underflow of the sender's balance is impossible because we check for
        // ownership above and the recipient's balance can't realistically overflow.
        // Counter overflow is incredibly unrealistic as `tokenId` would have to be 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `balance -= 1`.
            // - `numberBurned += 1`.
            //
            // We can directly decrement the balance, and increment the number burned.
            // This is equivalent to `packed -= 1; packed += 1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED;`.
            _packedAddressData[from] += (1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED) - 1;

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the last owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of burning.
            // - `burned` to `true`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
            _packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                from,
                (_BITMASK_BURNED | _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED) | _nextExtraData(from, address(0), prevOwnershipPacked)
            );

            // If the next slot may not have been initialized (i.e. `nextInitialized == false`) .
            if (prevOwnershipPacked & _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED == 0) {
                uint256 nextTokenId = tokenId + 1;
                // If the next slot's address is zero and not burned (i.e. packed value is zero).
                if (_packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] == 0) {
                    // If the next slot is within bounds.
                    if (nextTokenId != _currentIndex) {
                        // Initialize the next slot to maintain correctness for `ownerOf(tokenId + 1)`.
                        _packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] = prevOwnershipPacked;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        emit Transfer(from, address(0), tokenId);
        _afterTokenTransfers(from, address(0), tokenId, 1);

        // Overflow not possible, as _burnCounter cannot be exceed _currentIndex times.
        unchecked {
            _burnCounter++;
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                     EXTRA DATA OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Directly sets the extra data for the ownership data `index`.
     */
    function _setExtraDataAt(uint256 index, uint24 extraData) internal virtual {
        uint256 packed = _packedOwnerships[index];
        if (packed == 0) _revert(OwnershipNotInitializedForExtraData.selector);
        uint256 extraDataCasted;
        // Cast `extraData` with assembly to avoid redundant masking.
        assembly {
            extraDataCasted := extraData
        }
        packed = (packed & _BITMASK_EXTRA_DATA_COMPLEMENT) | (extraDataCasted << _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
        _packedOwnerships[index] = packed;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Called during each token transfer to set the 24bit `extraData` field.
     * Intended to be overridden by the cosumer contract.
     *
     * `previousExtraData` - the value of `extraData` before transfer.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` will be burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _extraData(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint24 previousExtraData
    ) internal view virtual returns (uint24) {}

    /**
     * @dev Returns the next extra data for the packed ownership data.
     * The returned result is shifted into position.
     */
    function _nextExtraData(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        uint24 extraData = uint24(prevOwnershipPacked >> _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
        return uint256(_extraData(from, to, extraData)) << _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                       OTHER OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the message sender (defaults to `msg.sender`).
     *
     * If you are writing GSN compatible contracts, you need to override this function.
     */
    function _msgSenderERC721A() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a uint256 to its ASCII string decimal representation.
     */
    function _toString(uint256 value) internal pure virtual returns (string memory str) {
        assembly {
            // The maximum value of a uint256 contains 78 digits (1 byte per digit), but
            // we allocate 0xa0 bytes to keep the free memory pointer 32-byte word aligned.
            // We will need 1 word for the trailing zeros padding, 1 word for the length,
            // and 3 words for a maximum of 78 digits. Total: 5 * 0x20 = 0xa0.
            let m := add(mload(0x40), 0xa0)
            // Update the free memory pointer to allocate.
            mstore(0x40, m)
            // Assign the `str` to the end.
            str := sub(m, 0x20)
            // Zeroize the slot after the string.
            mstore(str, 0)

            // Cache the end of the memory to calculate the length later.
            let end := str

            // We write the string from rightmost digit to leftmost digit.
            // The following is essentially a do-while loop that also handles the zero case.
            // prettier-ignore
            for { let temp := value } 1 {} {
                str := sub(str, 1)
                // Write the character to the pointer.
                // The ASCII index of the '0' character is 48.
                mstore8(str, add(48, mod(temp, 10)))
                // Keep dividing `temp` until zero.
                temp := div(temp, 10)
                // prettier-ignore
                if iszero(temp) { break }
            }

            let length := sub(end, str)
            // Move the pointer 32 bytes leftwards to make room for the length.
            str := sub(str, 0x20)
            // Store the length.
            mstore(str, length)
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev For more efficient reverts.
     */
    function _revert(bytes4 errorSelector) internal pure {
        assembly {
            mstore(0x00, errorSelector)
            revert(0x00, 0x04)
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BUSL-1.1
pragma solidity ^0.8;

import "../ONFT721A.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Strings.sol";

contract AdvancedONFT721ATimed is ONFT721A {

    using Strings for uint;

    struct FinanceDetails {
        address payable beneficiary;
        address payable taxRecipient;
        uint16 tax; // 100% = 10000
        uint price;
    }

    struct Metadata {
        string baseURI;
        string hiddenMetadataURI;
    }

    struct NFTState {
        bool saleStarted;
        bool revealed;
        uint256 startTime; // UNIX timestampt
        uint256 mintLength; // number of seconds after start time mint is available for
    }

    uint256 public startId;
    uint256 public maxId;
    uint256 public maxGlobalId;

    FinanceDetails public _financeDetails;
    Metadata public metadata;
    NFTState public state;

    modifier onlyBenficiaryAndOwner() {
        require(msg.sender == _financeDetails.beneficiary || msg.sender == owner(), "Caller is not beneficiary or owner");
        _;
    }

    constructor(
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol,
        address _lzEndpoint,
        uint256 _startId,
        uint256 _maxId,
        uint256 _maxGlobalId,
        string memory _baseTokenURI,
        string memory _hiddenURI,
        uint16 _tax,
        uint _price,
        address _taxRecipient
    ) ONFT721A(_name, _symbol, 1, _lzEndpoint, _startId) {
        startId = _startId;
        maxGlobalId = _maxGlobalId;
        maxId = _maxId;
        _financeDetails = FinanceDetails(payable(msg.sender), payable(_taxRecipient), _tax, _price );
        metadata = Metadata(_baseTokenURI, _hiddenURI);
    }

    function mint(uint256 _nbTokens) external virtual payable {
        require(state.saleStarted, "Sale hasn't started");

        require(_nbTokens != 0);


        require(_nextTokenId() + _nbTokens - 1 <= maxId, "max supply reached");


        require(_nbTokens * _financeDetails.price <= msg.value, "not enough value");


        require(state.startTime + state.mintLength >= block.timestamp, "minting expired");


        _safeMint(msg.sender, _nbTokens);


    }

    function _getMaxGlobalId() internal view override returns (uint256) {
        return maxGlobalId;
    }

    function _getMaxId() internal view override returns (uint256) {
        return maxId;
    }

    function _startTokenId() internal view override returns(uint256) {
        return startId;
    }

    function setMintRange(uint32 _start, uint32 _end) external onlyOwner {
        require (_start > uint32(_totalMinted()));
        require (_end > _start);
        startId = _start;
        maxId = _end;
    }
    

    function setFinanceDetails(FinanceDetails calldata _finance) external onlyOwner {
        _financeDetails = _finance;
    }


    function setMetadata(Metadata calldata _metadata) external onlyBenficiaryAndOwner {
        metadata = _metadata;
    }

    function setNftState(NFTState calldata _state) external onlyBenficiaryAndOwner {
        state = NFTState(_state.saleStarted, _state.revealed, block.timestamp, _state.mintLength);
    }

    function withdraw() external onlyBenficiaryAndOwner {
        require(_financeDetails.beneficiary != address(0));
        require(_financeDetails.taxRecipient != address(0));
        uint balance = address(this).balance;
        uint taxFee = balance * _financeDetails.tax / 10000;
        require(payable(_financeDetails.beneficiary).send(balance - taxFee));
        require(payable(_financeDetails.taxRecipient).send(taxFee));
        require(payable(_financeDetails.beneficiary).send(address(this).balance));
    } 

    function _baseURI() internal view override returns (string memory) {
        return metadata.baseURI;
    }

    function tokenURI(uint256 _tokenId) public view virtual override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific) returns (string memory) {
        require(_exists(_tokenId));
        if (state.revealed) {
            return metadata.hiddenMetadataURI;
        } 
        return string(abi.encodePacked(_baseURI(), _tokenId.toString()));

    }

}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BUSL-1.1
pragma solidity ^0.8;

import "../AdvancedONFT721ATimed.sol";

contract OmnichainAdventures is AdvancedONFT721ATimed {


    uint64 public maxTokensPerMint = 20;


    constructor(
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol,
        address _lzEndpoint,
        uint256 _startId,
        uint256 _maxId,
        uint256 _maxGlobalId,
        string memory _baseTokenURI,
        string memory _hiddenURI,
        uint16 _tax,
        uint _price,
        address _taxRecipient
    ) AdvancedONFT721ATimed(_name, _symbol, _lzEndpoint, _startId, _maxId, _maxGlobalId, _baseTokenURI, _hiddenURI, _tax, _price, _taxRecipient) {}


    function tokenURI(uint256 _tokenId) public view virtual override(AdvancedONFT721ATimed) returns(string memory) {
        require(_exists(_tokenId));
        if (state.revealed) {
            return metadata.hiddenMetadataURI;
        }
        return metadata.baseURI;
    }

    function setMaxTokensPerMint(uint64 _maxTokensPerMint ) external onlyBenficiaryAndOwner {
        maxTokensPerMint = _maxTokensPerMint;
    }

   function mint(uint256 _nbTokens) external override payable {
        require(state.saleStarted, "Sale hasn't started");

        require(_nbTokens != 0);


        require(_nextTokenId() + _nbTokens - 1 <= maxId, "max supply reached");


        require(_nbTokens * _financeDetails.price <= msg.value, "not enough value");


        require(state.startTime + state.mintLength >= block.timestamp, "minting expired");

        require (_nbTokens <= maxTokensPerMint, "exceeded max minting limit");


        _safeMint(msg.sender, _nbTokens);


    }

}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// ERC721A Contracts v4.2.3
// Creator: Chiru Labs

pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

/**
 * @dev Interface of ERC721A.
 */
interface IERC721ASpecific {
    /**
     * The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    error ApprovalCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error ApprovalQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * Cannot query the balance for the zero address.
     */
    error BalanceQueryForZeroAddress();

    /**
     * Cannot mint to the zero address.
     */
    error MintToZeroAddress();

    /**
     * The quantity of tokens minted must be more than zero.
     */
    error MintZeroQuantity();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    error TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();

    /**
     * The token must be owned by `from`.
     */
    error TransferFromIncorrectOwner();

    /**
     * Cannot safely transfer to a contract that does not implement the
     * ERC721Receiver interface.
     */
    error TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer();

    /**
     * Cannot transfer to the zero address.
     */
    error TransferToZeroAddress();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error URIQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * The `quantity` minted with ERC2309 exceeds the safety limit.
     */
    error MintERC2309QuantityExceedsLimit();

    /**
     * The `extraData` cannot be set on an unintialized ownership slot.
     */
    error OwnershipNotInitializedForExtraData();

    // =============================================================
    //                            STRUCTS
    // =============================================================

    struct TokenOwnership {
        // The address of the owner.
        address addr;
        // Stores the start time of ownership with minimal overhead for tokenomics.
        uint64 startTimestamp;
        // Whether the token has been burned.
        bool burned;
        // Arbitrary data similar to `startTimestamp` that can be set via {_extraData}.
        uint24 extraData;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                         TOKEN COUNTERS
    // =============================================================



    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC165
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * [EIP section](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified)
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);

    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC721
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `tokenId` token is transferred from `from` to `to`.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables `approved` to manage the `tokenId` token.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed approved, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables or disables
     * (`approved`) `operator` to manage all of its assets.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed owner, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in `owner`'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`,
     * checking first that contract recipients are aware of the ERC721 protocol
     * to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be have been allowed to move
     * this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '')`.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {safeTransferFrom}
     * whenever possible.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the
     * zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom}
     * for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    // =============================================================
    //                        IERC721Metadata
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (string memory);

    // =============================================================
    //                           IERC2309
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when tokens in `fromTokenId` to `toTokenId`
     * (inclusive) is transferred from `from` to `to`, as defined in the
     * [ERC2309](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2309) standard.
     *
     * See {_mintERC2309} for more details.
     */
    event ConsecutiveTransfer(uint256 indexed fromTokenId, uint256 toTokenId, address indexed from, address indexed to);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IONFT721ACore.sol";
import "./IERC721ASpecific.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ONFT standard
 */
interface IONFT721A is IONFT721ACore, IERC721ASpecific {

    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view override(IERC165, IERC721ASpecific) returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

interface IONFT721ACore is IERC165 {
 /**
     * @dev Emitted when `_tokenIds[]` are moved from the `_sender` to (`_dstChainId`, `_toAddress`)
     * `_nonce` is the outbound nonce from
     */
    event SendToChain(uint16 indexed _dstChainId, address indexed _from, bytes indexed _toAddress, uint[] _tokenIds);
    event ReceiveFromChain(uint16 indexed _srcChainId, bytes indexed _srcAddress, address indexed _toAddress, uint[] _tokenIds);
    event SetMinGasToTransferAndStore(uint256 _minGasToTransferAndStore);
    event SetDstChainIdToTransferGas(uint16 _dstChainId, uint256 _dstChainIdToTransferGas);
    event SetDstChainIdToBatchLimit(uint16 _dstChainId, uint256 _dstChainIdToBatchLimit);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `_payload` was received from lz, but not enough gas to deliver all tokenIds
     */
    event CreditStored(bytes32 _hashedPayload, bytes _payload);
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `_hashedPayload` has been completely delivered
     */
    event CreditCleared(bytes32 _hashedPayload);

    /**
     * @dev send token `_tokenId` to (`_dstChainId`, `_toAddress`) from `_from`
     * `_toAddress` can be any size depending on the `dstChainId`.
     * `_zroPaymentAddress` set to address(0x0) if not paying in ZRO (LayerZero Token)
     * `_adapterParams` is a flexible bytes array to indicate messaging adapter services
     */
    function sendFrom(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes calldata _toAddress, uint _tokenId, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes calldata _adapterParams) external payable;
    /**
     * @dev send tokens `_tokenIds[]` to (`_dstChainId`, `_toAddress`) from `_from`
     * `_toAddress` can be any size depending on the `dstChainId`.
     * `_zroPaymentAddress` set to address(0x0) if not paying in ZRO (LayerZero Token)
     * `_adapterParams` is a flexible bytes array to indicate messaging adapter services
     */
    function sendBatchFrom(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes calldata _toAddress, uint[] calldata _tokenIds, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes calldata _adapterParams) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev estimate send token `_tokenId` to (`_dstChainId`, `_toAddress`)
     * _dstChainId - L0 defined chain id to send tokens too
     * _toAddress - dynamic bytes array which contains the address to whom you are sending tokens to on the dstChain
     * _tokenId - token Id to transfer
     * _useZro - indicates to use zro to pay L0 fees
     * _adapterParams - flexible bytes array to indicate messaging adapter services in L0
     */
    function estimateSendFee(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes calldata _toAddress, uint _tokenId, bool _useZro, bytes calldata _adapterParams) external view returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee);
    /**
     * @dev estimate send token `_tokenId` to (`_dstChainId`, `_toAddress`)
     * _dstChainId - L0 defined chain id to send tokens too
     * _toAddress - dynamic bytes array which contains the address to whom you are sending tokens to on the dstChain
     * _tokenIds[] - token Ids to transfer
     * _useZro - indicates to use zro to pay L0 fees
     * _adapterParams - flexible bytes array to indicate messaging adapter services in L0
     */
    function estimateSendBatchFee(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes calldata _toAddress, uint[] calldata _tokenIds, bool _useZro, bytes calldata _adapterParams) external view returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IONFT721A.sol";
import "./ONFT721ACore.sol";
import "./ERC721ASpecific.sol";
import "operator-filter-registry/src/DefaultOperatorFilterer.sol";


contract ONFT721A is ONFT721ACore, ERC721ASpecific, IONFT721A, DefaultOperatorFilterer{
    constructor(string memory _name, string memory _symbol, uint256 _minGasToTransfer, address _lzEndpoint, uint256 _startId) ERC721ASpecific(_name, _symbol, _startId) ONFT721ACore(_minGasToTransfer, _lzEndpoint) {}

    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ONFT721ACore, ERC721ASpecific, IONFT721A) returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IONFT721A).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    function _debitFrom(address _from, uint16, bytes memory, uint _tokenId) internal virtual override {
        bridgeTransfer(_from, address(this), _tokenId);
    }

    function _creditTo(uint16, address _toAddress, uint _tokenId) internal virtual override {
        require(!_exists(_tokenId) || (_exists(_tokenId) && ERC721ASpecific.ownerOf(_tokenId) == address(this)));
        if (!_exists(_tokenId)) {
            bridgeMint(_toAddress, _tokenId);
        } else {
            bridgeTransfer(address(this), _toAddress, _tokenId);
        }
    }

    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific) onlyAllowedOperatorApproval(operator) {
        super.setApprovalForAll(operator, approved);
    }

    function approve(address operator, uint256 tokenId) public payable override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific) onlyAllowedOperatorApproval(operator) {
        super.approve(operator, tokenId);
    }

    function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) public payable override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific) onlyAllowedOperator(from) {
        super.transferFrom(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    function safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId) public payable override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific) onlyAllowedOperator(from) {
        super.safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    function safeTransferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId, bytes memory data)
        public
        payable
        override(ERC721ASpecific, IERC721ASpecific)
        onlyAllowedOperator(from)
    {
        super.safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, data);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "@layerzerolabs/solidity-examples/contracts/lzApp/NonblockingLzApp.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/introspection/ERC165.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/security/ReentrancyGuard.sol";
import "./IONFT721ACore.sol";

 abstract contract ONFT721ACore is NonblockingLzApp, ERC165, ReentrancyGuard, IONFT721ACore {
    uint16 public constant FUNCTION_TYPE_SEND = 1;

    struct StoredCredit {
        uint16 srcChainId;
        address toAddress;
        uint256 index; // which index of the tokenIds remain
        bool creditsRemain;
    }

    uint256 public minGasToTransferAndStore; // min amount of gas required to transfer, and also store the payload
    mapping(uint16 => uint256) public dstChainIdToBatchLimit;
    mapping(uint16 => uint256) public dstChainIdToTransferGas; // per transfer amount of gas required to mint/transfer on the dst
    mapping(bytes32 => StoredCredit) public storedCredits;

    constructor(uint256 _minGasToTransferAndStore, address _lzEndpoint) NonblockingLzApp(_lzEndpoint) {
        require(_minGasToTransferAndStore > 0, "minGasToTransferAndStore must be > 0");
        minGasToTransferAndStore = _minGasToTransferAndStore;
    }

    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ERC165, IERC165) returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IONFT721ACore).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    function estimateSendFee(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint _tokenId, bool _useZro, bytes memory _adapterParams) public view virtual override returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee) {
        return estimateSendBatchFee(_dstChainId, _toAddress, _toSingletonArray(_tokenId), _useZro, _adapterParams);
    }

    function estimateSendBatchFee(uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint[] memory _tokenIds, bool _useZro, bytes memory _adapterParams) public view virtual override returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee) {
        bytes memory payload = abi.encode(_toAddress, _tokenIds);
        return lzEndpoint.estimateFees(_dstChainId, address(this), payload, _useZro, _adapterParams);
    }

    function sendFrom(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint _tokenId, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes memory _adapterParams) public payable virtual override {
        _send(_from, _dstChainId, _toAddress, _toSingletonArray(_tokenId), _refundAddress, _zroPaymentAddress, _adapterParams);
    }

    function sendBatchFrom(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint[] memory _tokenIds, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes memory _adapterParams) public payable virtual override {
        _send(_from, _dstChainId, _toAddress, _tokenIds, _refundAddress, _zroPaymentAddress, _adapterParams);
    }

    function _send(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint[] memory _tokenIds, address payable _refundAddress, address _zroPaymentAddress, bytes memory _adapterParams) internal virtual {
        // allow 1 by default
        require(_tokenIds.length > 0, "tokenIds[] is empty");
        require(_tokenIds.length == 1 || _tokenIds.length <= dstChainIdToBatchLimit[_dstChainId], "batch size exceeds dst batch limit");

        for (uint i = 0; i < _tokenIds.length; i++) {
            _debitFrom(_from, _dstChainId, _toAddress, _tokenIds[i]);
        }

        bytes memory payload = abi.encode(_toAddress, _tokenIds);

        _checkGasLimit(_dstChainId, FUNCTION_TYPE_SEND, _adapterParams, dstChainIdToTransferGas[_dstChainId] * _tokenIds.length);
        _lzSend(_dstChainId, payload, _refundAddress, _zroPaymentAddress, _adapterParams, msg.value);
        emit SendToChain(_dstChainId, _from, _toAddress, _tokenIds);
    }

    function _nonblockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64, /*_nonce*/
        bytes memory _payload
    ) internal virtual override {
        // decode and load the toAddress
        (bytes memory toAddressBytes, uint[] memory tokenIds) = abi.decode(_payload, (bytes, uint[]));

        address toAddress;
        assembly {
            toAddress := mload(add(toAddressBytes, 20))
        }

        uint nextIndex = _creditTill(_srcChainId, toAddress, 0, tokenIds);
        if (nextIndex < tokenIds.length) {
            // not enough gas to complete transfers, store to be cleared in another tx
            bytes32 hashedPayload = keccak256(_payload);
            storedCredits[hashedPayload] = StoredCredit(_srcChainId, toAddress, nextIndex, true);
            emit CreditStored(hashedPayload, _payload);
        }

        emit ReceiveFromChain(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, toAddress, tokenIds);
    }

    // Public function for anyone to clear and deliver the remaining batch sent tokenIds
    function clearCredits(bytes memory _payload) external virtual nonReentrant {
        bytes32 hashedPayload = keccak256(_payload);
        require(storedCredits[hashedPayload].creditsRemain, "no credits stored");

        (, uint[] memory tokenIds) = abi.decode(_payload, (bytes, uint[]));

        uint nextIndex = _creditTill(storedCredits[hashedPayload].srcChainId, storedCredits[hashedPayload].toAddress, storedCredits[hashedPayload].index, tokenIds);
        require(nextIndex > storedCredits[hashedPayload].index, "not enough gas to process credit transfer");

        if (nextIndex == tokenIds.length) {
            // cleared the credits, delete the element
            delete storedCredits[hashedPayload];
            emit CreditCleared(hashedPayload);
        } else {
            // store the next index to mint
            storedCredits[hashedPayload] = StoredCredit(storedCredits[hashedPayload].srcChainId, storedCredits[hashedPayload].toAddress, nextIndex, true);
        }
    }

    // When a srcChain has the ability to transfer more chainIds in a single tx than the dst can do.
    // Needs the ability to iterate and stop if the minGasToTransferAndStore is not met
    function _creditTill(uint16 _srcChainId, address _toAddress, uint _startIndex, uint[] memory _tokenIds) internal returns (uint256){
        uint i = _startIndex;
        while (i < _tokenIds.length) {
            // if not enough gas to process, store this index for next loop
            if (gasleft() < minGasToTransferAndStore) break;

            _creditTo(_srcChainId, _toAddress, _tokenIds[i]);
            i++;
        }

        // indicates the next index to send of tokenIds,
        // if i == tokenIds.length, we are finished
        return i;
    }

    function setMinGasToTransferAndStore(uint256 _minGasToTransferAndStore) external onlyOwner {
        require(_minGasToTransferAndStore > 0, "minGasToTransferAndStore must be > 0");
        minGasToTransferAndStore = _minGasToTransferAndStore;
        emit SetMinGasToTransferAndStore(_minGasToTransferAndStore);
    }

    // ensures enough gas in adapter params to handle batch transfer gas amounts on the dst
    function setDstChainIdToTransferGas(uint16 _dstChainId, uint256 _dstChainIdToTransferGas) external onlyOwner {
        require(_dstChainIdToTransferGas > 0, "dstChainIdToTransferGas must be > 0");
        dstChainIdToTransferGas[_dstChainId] = _dstChainIdToTransferGas;
        emit SetDstChainIdToTransferGas(_dstChainId, _dstChainIdToTransferGas);
    }

    // limit on src the amount of tokens to batch send
    function setDstChainIdToBatchLimit(uint16 _dstChainId, uint256 _dstChainIdToBatchLimit) external onlyOwner {
        require(_dstChainIdToBatchLimit > 0, "dstChainIdToBatchLimit must be > 0");
        dstChainIdToBatchLimit[_dstChainId] = _dstChainIdToBatchLimit;
        emit SetDstChainIdToBatchLimit(_dstChainId, _dstChainIdToBatchLimit);
    }

    function _debitFrom(address _from, uint16 _dstChainId, bytes memory _toAddress, uint _tokenId) internal virtual;

    function _creditTo(uint16 _srcChainId, address _toAddress, uint _tokenId) internal virtual;

    function _toSingletonArray(uint element) internal pure returns (uint[] memory) {
        uint[] memory array = new uint[](1);
        array[0] = element;
        return array;
    }
 }

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import {OperatorFilterer} from "./OperatorFilterer.sol";
import {CANONICAL_CORI_SUBSCRIPTION} from "./lib/Constants.sol";
/**
 * @title  DefaultOperatorFilterer
 * @notice Inherits from OperatorFilterer and automatically subscribes to the default OpenSea subscription.
 * @dev    Please note that if your token contract does not provide an owner with EIP-173, it must provide
 *         administration methods on the contract itself to interact with the registry otherwise the subscription
 *         will be locked to the options set during construction.
 */

abstract contract DefaultOperatorFilterer is OperatorFilterer {
    /// @dev The constructor that is called when the contract is being deployed.
    constructor() OperatorFilterer(CANONICAL_CORI_SUBSCRIPTION, true) {}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

interface IOperatorFilterRegistry {
    /**
     * @notice Returns true if operator is not filtered for a given token, either by address or codeHash. Also returns
     *         true if supplied registrant address is not registered.
     */
    function isOperatorAllowed(address registrant, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    /**
     * @notice Registers an address with the registry. May be called by address itself or by EIP-173 owner.
     */
    function register(address registrant) external;

    /**
     * @notice Registers an address with the registry and "subscribes" to another address's filtered operators and codeHashes.
     */
    function registerAndSubscribe(address registrant, address subscription) external;

    /**
     * @notice Registers an address with the registry and copies the filtered operators and codeHashes from another
     *         address without subscribing.
     */
    function registerAndCopyEntries(address registrant, address registrantToCopy) external;

    /**
     * @notice Unregisters an address with the registry and removes its subscription. May be called by address itself or by EIP-173 owner.
     *         Note that this does not remove any filtered addresses or codeHashes.
     *         Also note that any subscriptions to this registrant will still be active and follow the existing filtered addresses and codehashes.
     */
    function unregister(address addr) external;

    /**
     * @notice Update an operator address for a registered address - when filtered is true, the operator is filtered.
     */
    function updateOperator(address registrant, address operator, bool filtered) external;

    /**
     * @notice Update multiple operators for a registered address - when filtered is true, the operators will be filtered. Reverts on duplicates.
     */
    function updateOperators(address registrant, address[] calldata operators, bool filtered) external;

    /**
     * @notice Update a codeHash for a registered address - when filtered is true, the codeHash is filtered.
     */
    function updateCodeHash(address registrant, bytes32 codehash, bool filtered) external;

    /**
     * @notice Update multiple codeHashes for a registered address - when filtered is true, the codeHashes will be filtered. Reverts on duplicates.
     */
    function updateCodeHashes(address registrant, bytes32[] calldata codeHashes, bool filtered) external;

    /**
     * @notice Subscribe an address to another registrant's filtered operators and codeHashes. Will remove previous
     *         subscription if present.
     *         Note that accounts with subscriptions may go on to subscribe to other accounts - in this case,
     *         subscriptions will not be forwarded. Instead the former subscription's existing entries will still be
     *         used.
     */
    function subscribe(address registrant, address registrantToSubscribe) external;

    /**
     * @notice Unsubscribe an address from its current subscribed registrant, and optionally copy its filtered operators and codeHashes.
     */
    function unsubscribe(address registrant, bool copyExistingEntries) external;

    /**
     * @notice Get the subscription address of a given registrant, if any.
     */
    function subscriptionOf(address addr) external returns (address registrant);

    /**
     * @notice Get the set of addresses subscribed to a given registrant.
     *         Note that order is not guaranteed as updates are made.
     */
    function subscribers(address registrant) external returns (address[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Get the subscriber at a given index in the set of addresses subscribed to a given registrant.
     *         Note that order is not guaranteed as updates are made.
     */
    function subscriberAt(address registrant, uint256 index) external returns (address);

    /**
     * @notice Copy filtered operators and codeHashes from a different registrantToCopy to addr.
     */
    function copyEntriesOf(address registrant, address registrantToCopy) external;

    /**
     * @notice Returns true if operator is filtered by a given address or its subscription.
     */
    function isOperatorFiltered(address registrant, address operator) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @notice Returns true if the hash of an address's code is filtered by a given address or its subscription.
     */
    function isCodeHashOfFiltered(address registrant, address operatorWithCode) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @notice Returns true if a codeHash is filtered by a given address or its subscription.
     */
    function isCodeHashFiltered(address registrant, bytes32 codeHash) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @notice Returns a list of filtered operators for a given address or its subscription.
     */
    function filteredOperators(address addr) external returns (address[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Returns the set of filtered codeHashes for a given address or its subscription.
     *         Note that order is not guaranteed as updates are made.
     */
    function filteredCodeHashes(address addr) external returns (bytes32[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Returns the filtered operator at the given index of the set of filtered operators for a given address or
     *         its subscription.
     *         Note that order is not guaranteed as updates are made.
     */
    function filteredOperatorAt(address registrant, uint256 index) external returns (address);

    /**
     * @notice Returns the filtered codeHash at the given index of the list of filtered codeHashes for a given address or
     *         its subscription.
     *         Note that order is not guaranteed as updates are made.
     */
    function filteredCodeHashAt(address registrant, uint256 index) external returns (bytes32);

    /**
     * @notice Returns true if an address has registered
     */
    function isRegistered(address addr) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Convenience method to compute the code hash of an arbitrary contract
     */
    function codeHashOf(address addr) external returns (bytes32);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

address constant CANONICAL_OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY_ADDRESS = 0x000000000000AAeB6D7670E522A718067333cd4E;
address constant CANONICAL_CORI_SUBSCRIPTION = 0x3cc6CddA760b79bAfa08dF41ECFA224f810dCeB6;

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import {IOperatorFilterRegistry} from "./IOperatorFilterRegistry.sol";
import {CANONICAL_OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY_ADDRESS} from "./lib/Constants.sol";
/**
 * @title  OperatorFilterer
 * @notice Abstract contract whose constructor automatically registers and optionally subscribes to or copies another
 *         registrant's entries in the OperatorFilterRegistry.
 * @dev    This smart contract is meant to be inherited by token contracts so they can use the following:
 *         - `onlyAllowedOperator` modifier for `transferFrom` and `safeTransferFrom` methods.
 *         - `onlyAllowedOperatorApproval` modifier for `approve` and `setApprovalForAll` methods.
 *         Please note that if your token contract does not provide an owner with EIP-173, it must provide
 *         administration methods on the contract itself to interact with the registry otherwise the subscription
 *         will be locked to the options set during construction.
 */

abstract contract OperatorFilterer {
    /// @dev Emitted when an operator is not allowed.
    error OperatorNotAllowed(address operator);

    IOperatorFilterRegistry public constant OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY =
        IOperatorFilterRegistry(CANONICAL_OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY_ADDRESS);

    /// @dev The constructor that is called when the contract is being deployed.
    constructor(address subscriptionOrRegistrantToCopy, bool subscribe) {
        // If an inheriting token contract is deployed to a network without the registry deployed, the modifier
        // will not revert, but the contract will need to be registered with the registry once it is deployed in
        // order for the modifier to filter addresses.
        if (address(OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY).code.length > 0) {
            if (subscribe) {
                OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY.registerAndSubscribe(address(this), subscriptionOrRegistrantToCopy);
            } else {
                if (subscriptionOrRegistrantToCopy != address(0)) {
                    OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY.registerAndCopyEntries(address(this), subscriptionOrRegistrantToCopy);
                } else {
                    OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY.register(address(this));
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev A helper function to check if an operator is allowed.
     */
    modifier onlyAllowedOperator(address from) virtual {
        // Allow spending tokens from addresses with balance
        // Note that this still allows listings and marketplaces with escrow to transfer tokens if transferred
        // from an EOA.
        if (from != msg.sender) {
            _checkFilterOperator(msg.sender);
        }
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev A helper function to check if an operator approval is allowed.
     */
    modifier onlyAllowedOperatorApproval(address operator) virtual {
        _checkFilterOperator(operator);
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev A helper function to check if an operator is allowed.
     */
    function _checkFilterOperator(address operator) internal view virtual {
        // Check registry code length to facilitate testing in environments without a deployed registry.
        if (address(OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY).code.length > 0) {
            // under normal circumstances, this function will revert rather than return false, but inheriting contracts
            // may specify their own OperatorFilterRegistry implementations, which may behave differently
            if (!OPERATOR_FILTER_REGISTRY.isOperatorAllowed(address(this), operator)) {
                revert OperatorNotAllowed(operator);
            }
        }
    }
}

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